Chapter_5_Outline - Ch 5 The Structure and Function of...

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Ch. 5: The Structure and Function of Macromolecules I. Polymer Principles A. Monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other (condensation reaction), forming polymers. B. The four major classes of macromolecules are: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. C. Condensation is the formation of covalent bonds between monomers by loss of a water molecule to form polymers; hydrolysis is the breaking of these covalent bonds between monomers by the addition of water molecule. D. Organic polymers are constructed from only forty to fifty common monomers and some rare ones; the essentially limitless combination of these monomers creates the diversity we see in biology. II. Carbohydrates: Fuel and Building Material A. Carbohydrates (including both sugars and their polymers) are distinguished by the amount of sugars they include; monosaccharides are single sugars, disaccharides double, and polysaccharides many sugars. B. Monosaccharides have a single sugar (simple sugars), while disaccharides are two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage. C. Glycosidic linkages are covalent bonds formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction; an example to this is maltose (disaccharide) formed by two molecules of glucose (monosaccharide). D. Polysaccharides are polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages; the sugar monomers and the position of the glycosidic linkages determine the architecture and function of polysaccharides. Some polysaccharides are for storage (starch in plants; glycogen in animals), while others are for structural purposes (cellulose in plants; chitin in arthropods). E. The glycosidic linkages of starch are all of the α configuration of glucose (two different ring structures), where all the 1-4 linkages are parallel. The glycosidic linkages of cellulose are one of the β configuration (every other glucose monomer is upside down). This difference gives the two molecules different three-dimensional shapes (starches are helical, cellulose are straight). III. Lipids: Diverse Hydrophobic Molecules A. Lipids are different from other major classes of macromolecules because they have little to no affinity for water (hydrophobic). B. Fats: glycerol and fatty acids; formed by an ester linkage of three fatty acids to one glycerol molecule. store energy and can be saturated or unsaturated. C.
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Chapter_5_Outline - Ch 5 The Structure and Function of...

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