Chapter 6: An Introduction to Metabolism I. Metabolism, Energy, and Life A. Through catabolic pathways, cellular respiration is possible, which breaks down glucose and other organic fuels into carbon dioxide and water. Through anabolic pathways, the synthesis of a protein from amino acids is possible. B. Kinetic energy is the type of energy an object in motion has, while potential energy is the type of energy that the object possesses prior to movement. C. Closed systems are isolated from their surroundings, while open systems transfer energy between the system and its surroundings. D. The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can change forms but not its existence; the second law of thermodynamics states that the changing forms of energy increase the likelihood of disorder in the living world. E. Highly ordered living organisms can keep a low rate of entropy as long as the surrounding world perpetuates disorder. F.
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