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Unformatted text preview: Describe the difference between a phase transition and a glass transition. What is a thixotropic fluid? Give an example. What is unique about these foods? What are the fourteen textural characteristics of foods? Which are primary and which are secondary? What is the equation of mass balance for a process? Why is it significant? How does fluid flow affect food quality? I ceC am re
Taiye Oladipo FDST 4010 History Ice cream was introduced into the United States by Quaker colonists who brought their own ice cream recipes with them Around 1832, Augustus Jackson created several ice cream recipes as well as invented a technique to manufacture them In 1843, a woman by the name of Nancy Johnson was issued the first US patent for a smallscale hand cranked ice cream freezer machine Ice Cream History Facts The ice cream sundae came about in the late 19th century Both the ice cream cone and banana split became popular in the early 20th century Ice cream became popular throughout the world in the latter part of the 1900s after cheap refrigeration became common Soon after, ice cream stores started to appear with even more new flavors One important innovation was the introduction of soft ice cream which contained more air and less of the actual ingredients which lessened the production cost! Around 1926, the first commercially successful continuous process freezer for ice cream was invented by Clarence Vogt. Milk Ice Cream Ingredients Sugar Eggs Cream Flavorings such as Vanilla Emulsifiers, Stabilizers(such as guar gum, carageenan, and gelatin) Air! Ice Cream Ingredients Cont. 1016% milk fat 912% milk solidsnon fat (caseins and whey proteins, lactose) 1216% sweeteners 0.2 to 0.5% stabilizers and emulsifiers 5564% water which comes from the milk and other ingredients Ice cream can contain as much as half air by volume Ice cream is a frozen foam meaning it's Ice Cream Facts a gas dispersed in liquid The emulsifiers in ice cream prevent separation of the fat and liquid Stabilizers work to reduce the amount of free water in ice cream and prevent it from melting Emulsifiers, Stabilizers, and air are all very important components of ice cream The incorporation of air into ice cream is Air?? called overrun. Air is what gives ice cream its smooth texture and is a very integral ingredient! Without air, ice cream would be hard and grainy Standard ice cream contains an equal volume of mix and air, or an overrun of 100% Handcranked Ice Cream Machine Just add all the ingredients including milk, sugar, cream, etc. as well as rock salt and ice cream is ready after cranking for 20 or so minutes. Modern Day Ice Cream Production Starts with the receiving and storage of dry ingredients and raw materials and then subsequent mixing of ingredients Homogenization and pasteurization of milk to eliminate pathogens and allow for a greater shelf life Aging, flavor addition, and whipping of air into the mixture Freezing and Hardening Freezing further limits microbial growth in ice cream Freezing hardens the ice cream making firm so that it holds together Superpremiumlow overrun and high fat 3 main Ice Cream types content, but best quality ingredients used Premiumlower overrun and higher fat content than standard Ice Cream Delivery Ice cream man(directly to consumer) Refrigerated trucks(delivery to grocery stores, etc.) Raw material receiving and storage Mixing of ingredients Pasteurization and Homogenization Aging Whipping of air into mixture Freezing Packaging Hardening Distribution Resources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_cream http://www.che.cemr.wvu.edu/publications/pro http://www.benjerry.com/ http://www.pastrywiz.com/letseat/icecream.htm FDST 4010/6010
Lecture 2 Sensory Quality Quality is the "composite of those characteristics that differentiate individual units of a product, and have significance in determining the degree of acceptability of that unit by the buyer." (Kramer and Twigg, 1970) CA = f (q1,q2...qn) The three types of sensory characteristics are flavor, color and texture. Instrumental measures of quality provide accurate and precise results. Nutrition and safety are hidden quality characteristics. Quality control is the program for ensuring the safety and quality of a food product. Chapter 14 online ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/15/2010 for the course FDST 4080 taught by Professor Pegg during the Spring '10 term at University of Georgia Athens.
- Spring '10