shortening review

shortening review - Fats Fats, Types of Shortenings,...

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1 Fats, Types of Shortenings, Function, Health Lipid shortenings: a review Baljit S. Ghotra, Sandra D. Dyal, Suresh S. Narine* Food Research International 35 (2002) 1015–1048 Fats Types of Shortenings Function Health (trans fats Health (trans fats) Not flavor Not oxidation Shortenings Fats formulated from oil with plasticizer and emulsifier “shorten” texture, i.e. weaken, lubricate, shorten structure to given desired texture, e.g. moderates adherance of gluten and starch in bread, so that bread is less tough Functions of Shortenings Tenderness, texture Mouth feel Structural integrity Lubrication Incorporation of air Heat transfer (quick, uniform heat transfer, aids in formation of moisture barrier) Extended shelf life Terms SFC solid fat content IV iodine value, measures the degree of unsaturation, # double bonds Plastic, solid, non-fluid, non-pourable, non- pump-able at room temperature Peroxide value, extent of oxidation by fat Smoke point, temperature at which fat gives off wisps of smoke when heated Terms Crystalline forms, polymorphism, alpha, beta’, beta, different forms have different melting behavior, hardness, stability alpha, beta’, beta: order of increasing stability
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2 Performance of function Solid to liquid phase ratio Plasticity of shortening Oxidative stabilit Oxidative stability Types of shortenings All purpose Fluid Cake Frying Pie crust Pastry Icing Filler fat Bread Confectioners Dry Table 2 Formulation for a multipurpose shortening ( Gawrilow, 1973 ) Tallow 65.6% Cottonseed oil 21.9% 6.2% Triglycerol monostearate 4% Lecithin 1% Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate 1.3% Fluid shortening Hard fat, lard and emulsifier, lecithin Melted, slow cooling under agitation with lecithin to inhibit crystallization Convenience of pumping fluid shortening Cake shortening Shortening with added mono and di-glycerides Saturated monoglycerides form desirable complexes with starch amylose, softer crumb, longer shelf life Forms many, small air cells for large volume, close grain
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This note was uploaded on 06/15/2010 for the course FDST 4080 taught by Professor Pegg during the Spring '10 term at UGA.

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shortening review - Fats Fats, Types of Shortenings,...

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