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1 STUDY GUIDE FOR 1st MID-TERM EXAM SAS5: SCIENCE, SOCIETY, AND DISEASE 1.) Why is the guinea pig a good animal model to study vitamin C metabolism in humans? Like humans, guinea pigs cannot synthesize their own vitamin C and must obtain this vital nutrient from food. 2.) What was the name of the UC Davis chancellor who played a key role in establishing the bicycle infrastructure and culture on his campus? His name is Emil Mrak 3.) Oetzi is a 5,500-year old mummy found in the ice of a glacier on the Italian-Austrian border. Oetzi’s finger nails showed so-called Beau’s lines. What do these tell us about his health? Oetzi’s fingernails showed he had three beau’s lines on them, so it indicated that he was sick 3 times in the 6 months before he died. 4.) X-rays of Oetzi’s skeletal remains revealed signs of arthritis. On the skin covering the bones, small tattoos were discovered. What might have been the link between the two? These small tattoos consist of simple dots and lines. Iceman may have had arthritis in these specific joints, maybe related to acupuncture. 5.) Oetzi carried with him a sample of birch fungus. What might have been its purpose? Birch fungus is known to have antibacterial properties, and was likely used for medicinal purposes. 6.) Name at least one of the presumed most common causes of death in hunter gatherer tribes. 1.) Trauma 2.) Malnutrition/starvation 7.) Skull remains from early agriculturalists show porosities that suggest iron-deficiency. Give at least two explanations for how this iron deficiency might have come about. 1.) Low-iron diet- did not have a lot of iron in the body because of low millet. 2.) Poor iron adsorption 3.) Iron loss from body 8.) How is the wear that is seen on teeth that belonged to prehistoric agriculturalists generally explained? The wear seen on the teeth is plaque- grains, it affected the teeth.
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2 9.) What archeological evidence exists that suggests that early agriculturalists experienced problems with tooth decay? Archeological evidence showed that there was prehistoric drilling during 5,500-7,000 BC 10.) How did domestication of animals contribute to the rise of new human diseases? The human disease of measles, TB, smallpox, influenza, whooping cough, and malaria is genetically related to animal diseases. Human disease Genetically related animal disease Measles Rinderpest of cattle Tuberculosis Tuberculosis of cattle Small pox Cowpox Influenza Influenza in swine and fowl Whooping cough Similar disease in pigs and dogs Falciparium malaria Malaria in birds (perhaps chicken and ducks) 11.) What caused the rapid increase in population sizes in settlements and cities between 3,500 BC and 100AD? 1.) Increased and more constant food supply 2.) Shortened birth interval 12.) What is a so-called crowd disease?
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