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1 LIN173: MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE A.) THEORIES 1.) Learning theory (pg108)- children learn the meanings of their words through associative learning (simplest explanation) a.) predicts that repeated exposure to a stimulus (for example, hearing the patient say the word kitty) paired with a particular experience (seeing the family cat appear) will result in the child associating the sound of the word kitty with family cat. b.) eventually, the infant will react to the word alone as if the cat were there- looking around for it or getting excited and ready for play c.) L.T may explain the earliest and simplest kinds of linking between words and objects. d.) children's word learning is not slow and error laden, rather it is rapid, predictable, and accurate. PPt- children learn the meanings of their first words through association. -Repeated exposure to a stimulus -May explain the earliest and simplest kinds of linking between words and objects. 2.) Prototype theory (pg107)- According to P.T- children acquire prototypes, or core concepts, when they acquire meaning and only later come to recognize category members that are distant from the prototypes. Ex. apples, collies, and roses are examples of prototypical fruits, dogs, and flowers. 3.) Semantic feature theory (pg106)- view is that children learn a set of distinguishing features for each categorical concept. Ex. At first the word dog may be understood to apply only to the child's own dog, but the child soon comes to understand that other creatures may also be called dog as long as they share a small set of criticl features. 4.) Classical concepts (pg107)- even if children are acquiring their concepts as categories, there are differences in the nature of the concept themselves. C.C such as triangle, which can be ambiguously defined: All triangles must have 3 angles, or they are simply not triangles. 5.) Probabilistic concept (pg107)- relates to C.C- bird on the hand, is an example of a probablistic concept. Most, but not all, birds have many features in common, but there is not a single set of essential features.
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2 6.) Lexical principles (pg109-110) -children are aided by a number of lexical principles that constrain the number of possible word-referent mappings. Ex. young children may assume that a new word they hear refers to an object, and further, that the word refers to the whole object rather than its parts. -These two tendencies together may predispose the child to eliminate the family dog's floppy ears, his appealing expression, or the way he tears around the living room as likely referents for the label dog. A.) Other lexical principles suggest that children tend to avoid two labels for one referent. i.) Principle of mutual exclusivity- the child in our example will be inclined to eliminate Rufus as a possible referent for bone, because Rufus already has a name. ii.)
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This note was uploaded on 06/15/2010 for the course LIN LIN173 taught by Professor Yuukotonkovich during the Fall '09 term at UC Davis.

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