hde101studyguide3

hde101studyguide3 - 1 Midterm III Study Guide I Problem...

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1 Midterm III Study Guide I. Problem Solving/Strategies a. Solving by analogy—what factors help us use analogy Analogy: solving problems by identifying corresponding structures or functions in objects or events that are being compared • Capacity to reason by analogy present in infancy • Differences in performance primarily attributable to differences knowledge • Same variables influence analogical reasoning of young children, older children, and adults • When superficial and deep characteristics are similar • When previous problems with the same solution principle have been encountered • When procedures used to solve the source problem and the target problem are highly similar b. Means-ends analysis Means-ends analysis : comparing the goal we would like to achieve with the current situation and reducing differences between the two until the goal can be met. • Tower of Hanoi problem • Older children can solve longer problems: • 3-year-olds: two-move problems • 4-year-olds: four-move problems • 5- and 6-year-olds: five- or six-move problems c. How children are different problem solvers than adults • Traditional views • Children seen as illogical and seriously deficient at problem solving • Adults viewed as highly skilled, logical reasoners • Contemporary views • Research shows that adults are substantially less logical and rational than was previously believed • Children have shown to be more rational and capable reasoners than previously believed • Children are more active thinkers than adults • Have less experience and world knowledge—more often encounter novel situations • Cognition is less automatic—more problem solving required for the negotiation of everyday life • Gaps in their knowledge often force them to attempt to resolve inconsistentencies
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• Children generally “mindful” whereas adults often behave in a “mindless” fashion (Langer, 1992) • Children’s thinking is heterogeneous and context dependent • Bricolage metaphor d. Methods used to study (microgenetic method) Processes of change : how children’s problem solving changes as they develop • Microgenetic method: obtaining frequent samples of children’s thinking as their thinking is undergoing change • Processes of change • Conclusions from microgenetic studies: • Changes does not usually involve a simple substitution of a more advanced problem solving strategy for a less advanced one • Children think about problems in multiple ways at any given time • Innovations follow success as well as failure _____________________________________________________________________________ _ II. Memory Development a. Verbatim vs. gist information • Two types of representations: • Verbatim representations : literal details of the situation • Gist representations: the meaning or essence of the event • Younger children rely more on verbatim information than gist information • Why? • Lesser knowledge
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hde101studyguide3 - 1 Midterm III Study Guide I Problem...

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