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HDE_100C_Study_guide_2 - 1 Study guide Midterm 2 CHAPTER 5...

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1 Study guide Midterm 2 CHAPTER 5: COGNITIVE CHANGES 1. What are the two types of intelligence? How do they change? Fluid intelligence Consists of skills that are biologically determined, independent of experience or learning, and may be similar to what is called ‘native intelligence’; spatial orientation, abstract reasoning, perceptual speed Crystallized intelligence Refers to knowledge and abilities that the individual acquires through education and lifelong experiences Some have concluded that aging is not really associated with a decline in intelligence, but that standardized IQ tests and the time pressures on test-takers are more detrimental to older than younger persons Peak performance varies by test Performance on timed tests declines Performance on non-timed test remains stable until the 80s People rarely decline in all areas High scorers continue to do well even among oldest-old Declines in tests of fluid intelligence begin earlier than in crystallized intelligence 2. What is the Classic Aging Pattern? Have studies confirmed it? Numerous studies have concluded there is a ‘classic aging pattern’ People age 65+ perform significantly worse on Performance Scale (fluid intelligence) But their scores on Verbal Scales (crystallized intelligence) remain stable Longitudinal Studies… Greatest declines were observed in test of hand-eye coordination and in fluid intelligence Classic Aging Pattern holds up in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies Some performance aspects of intelligence may begin to deteriorate after the age 60 Major changes are generally rare until mid-70’s 3. What is happening to intelligence shortly before death? Nutritional deficiencies (especially Vitamins E, A, B6, B12) Depression results in worse scores on both fluid and crystallized intelligence Terminal Drop Rapid decline in cognitive function within 5 years of death Time since birth (age) not as significant in intellectual decline as is proximity to death (Kleemeier,1962) 1
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2 4. How is memory affected as we age? Memory The process of retrieving or recalling the information stored in the brain when needed Sensory memory – Iconic (visual) – face recognition Types of retrieval: Recall and Recognition Recall – process of searching through secondary memory Recognition – requires less searching Why older people may have problems with retrieving info from secondary memory? Explanations of older adults’ difficulties with retrieving information Disuse theory the view that memory fades or is lost because one fails to use the information “Use it or lose it” adage proposed Interference theory the view that memory fades or is lost because of distractions experienced during learning CHAPTER 6: PERSONALITY AND MENTAL HEALTH 5. Contributions of personality theories to the process of personality change with age. Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation
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HDE_100C_Study_guide_2 - 1 Study guide Midterm 2 CHAPTER 5...

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