8 URBAN PLANNING notes

8 URBAN PLANNING notes - WHAT IS PLANNING Comprehensive...

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WHAT IS PLANNING? Comprehensive Planning: A set of policies that provide a basis for future decisions Official statement of policies for a community An attempt to guide the development of a political jurisdiction Long term- 20 year plans, revised every five years or less
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Brief History of Planning Land Ordinance of 1785- Promoted by Jefferson Established the Public Land Survey System Land sold in 640 acre blocks (township) for $1 per acre Provided for a land survey and the subdivision of land in an orderly way Land to be set aside for public use (usually section 16)
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Federal “Enabling Legislation” 1787 Northwest Ordinance laid out how states would eventually be created out of this territory, guaranteed basic rights, and forbade slavery. When an area in the Midwest had 5,000 adult males it could apply for Territory status At 60,000 they could apply for statehood
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1862-1890 Homestead Act Any family could occupy 160 acres, improve the land, stay five years and gain title to it.
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Large tracks of land given to industrialists like Rockefeller to build railroads west Service businesses cropped up to support railroads and small towns began 1872- first federal park (Yellowstone) and the creation of national forest reserves 1890- Teddy Roosevelt created the National Conservation Committee to do the first national inventory of resources
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1931 – Municipal Planning Act Enabling legislation that gave cities the power to plan Waves of immigration in the late 1800s and the industrial revolution increased urban population densities faster than needs of people could be met. Poorly built housing Muddy and congested streets Inadequate plumbing and sanitation Factory pollution
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First movements in planning To correct the awful conditions in large cities and create aesthetic beauty 1870- Fredrick Law Olmstead began a school for landscape architecture and planning and began park planning, developing many public parks such as Central Park in NYC. 1893- Chicago World’s Fair and the Columbian Exposition (20 years after the great fire)
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Daniel Burnham- “Make no little plans. They have no magic to stir men’s blood and probably themselves will not be realized. Make big plans; aim high in hope and work, remembering that a noble, logical diagram once recorded will never die, but long after we are gone will be a living thing, asserting itself with ever- growing insistency.” 1907 Chicago architect did plan for Chicago, San Francisco, and lead the City Beautiful movement after the 1893 fair.
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The City Beautiful movement Emphasized the creation of aesthetically pleasing cities, featuring great architecture, fountains, broad landscaped boulevards. City Practical or “City Efficient” movement
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8 URBAN PLANNING notes - WHAT IS PLANNING Comprehensive...

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