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ARTH247 Handout 7

ARTH247 Handout 7 - the seventh Isma‘il hence their name...

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ARTH 247 October 2, 2009 The Foundation of Cairo and the Fatimid Style Major Sects of Islam Sunni: from sunna (tradition or custom), those who adhere to the standard practice (understood to be of Muhammad). Sunnis form the majority of Muslims and follow four schools of jurisprudence. They accept the legitimacy of both the Umayyads and the Abbasids. Shi‘ite” from shi‘ia (supporters), those who recognized Ali as the only legitimate imam (political and religious leader) after Muhammad, and rejected subsequent caliphates, especially the Umayyads. They evolved into several sects that differed in the number of imams they recognized. The two most important sects are: 1. Twelver: this sect forms the majority of Shi‘ites, they recognize twelve descendents of Ali. 2. Isma‘ili: this sect recognizes the first six imams, but differ with the Twelvers about
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Unformatted text preview: the seventh, Isma‘il, hence their name. Fatimid Dynasty (909-1171): An Islma‘ili dynasty whose founder claimed descent from Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad and wife of Ali. The Fatimids established a counter-caliphate to that of the Abbasids. Al-Qahira (“the victorious”): The new capital city of Egypt established by the Fatimids upon their conquest of the region in 969. Muqarnas : One of the most distinctive architectural elements of Islamic architecture, sometimes referred to as stalactite pendentives or honeycomb vaults. Main Buildings: • Cairo Walls, Fatimid Palaces and the Walls of Cairo ca. 11 th century • Mosque of Al-Hakim, 990-1003 • Al-Aqmar Mosque, c. 1125...
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