Sociology_Review_3 - Chapter 8 u2192 Social Stratification...

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Chapter 8 → Social Stratification Vocabulary 1. theoretical approach: a basic image of society that guides thinking and research 2. structural-functional approach: a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity & stability 3. social-conflict approach: a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change 4. symbolic-interaction approach: a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals 5. social stratification: a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy 6. social mobility: a change in position within the social hierarchy 7. caste system: social stratification based on ascription, or birth 8. class system: social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement 9. meritocracy : social stratification based on personal merit 10. status consistency : the degree of uniformity in a person's social standing across various dimensions of social inequality 11. structural social mobility: a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due to changes in society itself than to individual effort 12. ideology: cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, patterns of inequality 13. davis-moore thesis: the functional analysis claiming that social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of society 14. capitalists : people who own/operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits 15. proletarians : people who sell their labor for wages 16. alienation : the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness 17. blue-collar occupations: lower-prestige jobs that involve mostly labor 18. white-collar occupations: higher-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental activity 19. conspicuous consumption : buying/using products because of the "statement" they make about social position 20. income : earnings from work or investments 21. wealth : the total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts 22. intragenerational social mobility: change in social position occurring during a lifetime 23. intergenerational social mobility: upward/downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents 24. relative poverty: the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more 25. absolute poverty: a lack of resources that is life-threatening 26. feminization of poverty : trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor KEY CONCEPTS: Caste & Class: The United Kingdom Aristocratic England → caste Leading members of church, speak with authority of God Church officials lived in palaces & were first estate Ideology: The power behind stratification Cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality
Plato: every culture considers some type of inequality just Marx: Capitalist society keep wealth and power for few Spencer: “survival of the fittest” explanation

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