Chapter 14 Brain Control of Movement

Chapter 14 Brain Control of Movement - Chapter 14 Brain...

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Sheet1 Page 1 Chapter 14 Brain Control of Movement B The motor control hierarchy T Axons from the brain descend in the lateral pathways and the ventromedial pathways h Lateral pathways h Voluntary control of distal muscles h Ventromedial pathways h Control of posture and locomotion l The lateral pathways: corticospinal tract and rubrospinal tract h Corticospinal tract starts in the motor cortex h Crosses at pyramidal decussation: right motor cortex controls movement on left side of body, and opposite h Ends in the ventral horn in the spinal cord h Rubrospinal tract starts in the red nucleus h Gross movement of hands and arms h Evolutionary older pathway
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Sheet1 Page 2 h Vestibulospinal tract h Vestibular nuclei receives information from the vestibular apparatus in the inner ear h Ends bilaterally in ventral horn of spinal cord h Controls muscles used for balance and posture control h Rapid response to postural instability detected by vestibular apparatus h Tectospinal tract h Starts in superior colliculus h Superior colliculus receives visual information from retina h Orientation of head and eyes so that object of interest is in fovea The ventromedial pathways T Pontine and Medullary Reticulospinal tract h Pontine reticulospinal tract h Enhances antigravity reflexes to maintain a standing posture h Medullary reticulospinal tract h Opposite effect of pontine reticulospinal tract: releases antigravity muscles from h Starts in vestibular nuclei
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Sheet1 Page 3 reflex control r Primary motor cortex contains a map of the h Primary motor cortex, M1, is located in the precentral gyrus in the frontal lobe, area 4 h h There are also two higher motor areas in the cortex (area 6) T Neurons in primary motor cortex increase their firing rate before movement in certain directions f Nature, 13 July, 2006 h Research led by Dr. John Donoghue, Brown University h 25-year old patient, tetraplegic after being stabbed in neck 3 years earlier h Implanted array of electrodes in arm area of primary motor cortex h Activity of motor cortex was normal (even though axons going out from motor cortex had been severed) h Could use his thoughts (motor intentions) to directly control devices h Imagined moving his arm. Took only minutes to get used to h Moving computer cursor h Rudimentary movement of robotic arm R bodyhs musculature It contains a map of the bodyhs muscles. This map shows samedisproportions as the somatic sensory map in S1
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course NEUROBIOLO Fund Neuro taught by Professor Schjott during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Chapter 14 Brain Control of Movement - Chapter 14 Brain...

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