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Final - Study Guide

Final - Study Guide - Chem 124 Final Study Guide This is a...

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Chem 124 Final Study Guide This is a summary of the key concepts you should understand and be able to apply for the final exam. Applying the concepts means DOING calculations. Chapters 1–5: BASICS -Conversion from one metric unit to another (g to mg, m to km, etc) -Conversion from English to Metric given conversion factor -Basic Chemical Nomenclature (what is formula for sodium chloride? Carbon dioxide?) -Traits of different states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) -Components of Matter (Compounds, elements, atoms, ions, electrons, protons, neutrons, isotopes) -Translating & Balancing Chemical Equations – this includes being able to predict products for types of reactions listed on orange handout -Using Chemical Equations to do Stoichiometry (given this reaction, X grams of reactant Y makes how many grams of product Z?) -Recognizing simple reaction types (acid-base, precipitation, combustion, combination, decomposition, etc) -Knowing & Using the Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT Chapter 6 – Thermochemistry -Law of Conservation of Energy – Total energy of Universe is constant -Forms of energy and their interconversion Kinetic Potential -Definition of System & Surroundings -Total Internal Energy of a System E = q + w E a state function – what does that mean? Heat out vs. heat in to a system Work out vs. work in Pressure-volume work -Energy Units The Joule The calorie 1 cal = 4.184 J The Calorie 1 Cal = 1 kcal -Enthalpy, H What is it? Where does it come from? When does H = E? Also a state function Exothermic vs. Endothermic processes – sign of H Drawing and Using Energy Diagrams to illustrate H See Figures 6.6, 6.8, 6.10 How do we measure or calculate it?
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-Calorimetry q = mc T, in J or cal -q lost = q gained Specific heat capacity, c in J/g•K Constant Pressure Calorimetry – “Coffee-cup” Calorimetry -Hess’s Law Manipulating reactions and corresponding changes in H -Enthalpies of Formation H˚f Know how to write chemical reactions that correspond to H˚f Reactions forming one mole of a substance from its elements in their standard states- check tables in the back of book Hrxn = Σ n H˚f products – Σ n H˚f reactants -Using Hrxn in stoichiometry problems Thermochemical equation is a complete balanced equation with corresponding Hrxn included, in kJ Gives you a way to convert between J moles and grams -You should be able to use any of the ways to calculate q or H in combination with one another. Chapter 12—Part of Sections 12.1 & 12.2 that relate to Thermochemistry -Phase Changes—what are they? From solid to liquid, liquid to solid From liquid to gas, gas to liquid From solid to gas, gas to solid -Enthalpy of phase changes, Hfus or Hvap or Hsub in kJ/mol Sign depends on whether going from solid to liquid or liquid to solid, from liquid to gas or gas to liquid -Using Hfus or Hvap to calculate heat associated with phase change q = n Hfus -Understand heating/cooling curve like Figure 12.3, be able to label regions that correspond to different phases or transitions between phases
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