Midterm 1 - Study Guide

Midterm 1 - Study Guide - Chapter 6 Summary: 6.1 Forms of...

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Chapter 6 Summary: 6.1 Forms of Energy and their Interconversions a. definitions: system, surroundings, internal energy, closed system, open system, isolated system, heat, work, b. energy can be transferred two ways: heat and/or work c. law of conservation of energy (1 st law of thermodynamics): the total energy of the universe is constant; energy cannot be created or destroyed-- E = q + w E universe = E system + E surroundings = 0 or E system = - E surroundings d. the sign of energy transfer is always from the system’s perspective e. E= E final – E initial ; E of a system increases E f >E i and E > 0; E of a system decreases E f < E i and E < 0 f. heat change and analogous expressions as found in (d) (figure 6.3) g. work can occur in many forms; we’re interested in PV work or expansion work where w= -P V; if work is done on the system (compressing a sample), w > 0; if work is done by the system (expansion by the system pushing against the atmosphere) w < 0 h. F=ma (unit: kg m/s 2 or Newton) w= Fd (unit: kg m 2 /s 2 or Joule); work, potential energy, kinetic energy, thermal energy all have same units i. 1 calorie= 4.184 J j. State function: property dependent only on current states of the system, not the path taken to get to the state-- E can occur through any combination of q and/or w, but the same overall energy change occurs b/c E is independent of the path 6.2 Enthalpy a. see derivation of enthalpy; enthalpy is a thermodynamic variable invented by chemists to simplify things. We are really interested in
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Midterm 1 - Study Guide - Chapter 6 Summary: 6.1 Forms of...

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