Ch. 4 - Silberberg Chapter 4 The Major Classes of Chemical...

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Silberberg, Chapter 4 The Major Classes of Chemical Reactions (Review) 4.1 The Role of Water as Solvent Oppositely charged ions from an ionic compound separate from each other when dissolved in water, become surrounded by water molecules, and spread randomly throughout a solution. The movement of the ions enables the solution to conduct electricity. • Electrolyte: a substance that conducts a current when dissolved in water. • Solvated: the process by which an ion is surrounded by solvent molecules. • Nonelectrolytes: covalent molecules that are polar in nature, dissolve in water, but do not dissociate. Water is a polar molecule: • The ionizing effect of water as a solvent is due to the distribution of it bonding electrons and the overall shape of the water molecule. 1. Sharing of electrons between nonidentical atoms in a covalent bond is unequal, with oxygen (O) attracting the bonding electrons with greater affinity than H. 2. This situation creates 2 poles of charge (+ for H, - for O). H-O is a polar bond because of this. 3. Non-bonding electron pairs on O of water distort molecule’s shape (O is group 6A, 2 bonding e - ‘s, 4 nonbonding). 4. Water is a bent molecule to spatially accommodate the bonding H’s and 2 nonbonded pairs.
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