BIO 213-F09 - Lecture 2

BIO 213-F09 - Lecture 2 - Last Lecture Draw samples from...

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Last Lecture ATP ADP • Nature of Science • Organic Molecules – Carbohydrates – Proteins – Lipids – Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids CONTROL GROUP The variable being tested is absent EXPERIMENTAL GROUP The variable being tested is present Draw samples from some aspect of nature Compile results Compile results Compare and analyze the test results Report on experimental design, test results, and conclusions drawn from results
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Atoms Molecules Cells Tissues Organs Organisms Ecosystems Levels of Organization Red Blood Cells Oak Grassland
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Lecture Overview – Structure of Cells • prokaryotic and eukaryotic – Organelles • mitochondria and chloroplasts – Cellular Reproduction • mitosis and meiosis
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The Cell Theory •Every organism is composed of one or more cells •Cell is smallest unit having properties of life •Continuity of life arises from growth and division of single cells
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• Smallest unit of life • Has potential to survive on its own • Is highly organized for metabolism • Senses and responds to environment • Has potential to reproduce The Cell
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Why is this movie unrealistic? Indescribable. .. Indestructible! Nothing Can Stop It! The indestructible creature! Bloated with the blood of its victims!
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Why Are Cells So Small? • Surface-to-volume ratio • The bigger a cell is, the less surface area there is per unit volume • Above a certain size, material cannot be moved in or out of cell fast enough
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Types of Cells • Two fundamental types of cells – Prokaryotic (“pre-nucleus”) • Archaebacteria, Eubacteria – Eukaryotic (“true nucleus”) • Protistans, Fungi, Plants, Animals
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Escherichia coli Prokaryotes: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria • Smallest known cells (1µm) • No membrane-bound organelles • Enclosed by a plasma membrane, permeable cell wall, and polysaccharide capsule • Nucleoid (location of circular chromosome)
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Capsule Cell wall Plasma membrane Nucleoid Cytoplasm Electron micrograph of E. coli Prokaryotes / Bacteria 0.5 µm
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Theory of Endosymbiosis • Lynn Margulis (UMASS, Amherst)
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BIO 213-F09 - Lecture 2 - Last Lecture Draw samples from...

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