Copy of HMD2 - WK 2 1 Bioenergetics and thermodynamics If...

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WK 2 1) Bioenergetics and thermodynamics If the DG'° of the reaction A B is –40 kJ/mol, under standard conditions the reaction: A is at equilibrium. B will never reach equilibrium. C will not occur spontaneously. D will proceed at a rapid rate. E will proceed spontaneously from left to right. 2) Phosphoryl group transfers and ATP The hydrolysis of ATP has a large negative D G' °; nevertheless it is stable in solution due to: A) entropy stabilization. B) ionization of the phosphates. C) resonance stabilization. D) the hydrolysis reaction being endergonic. E) the hydrolysis reaction having a large activation energy. 3) Bioenergetics and thermodynamics Explain the relationships among the change in the degree of order, the change in entropy, and the change in free energy that occur during a chemical reaction. Ans: Entropy is a measure of disorder. Thus, if there is an increase in order there is a decrease in entropy. The greater the entropy of a system, the smaller its free energy. Thus, an increase in entropy during a reaction will result in a decrease in free energy. 4) Glycolysis is the name given to a metabolic pathway occurring in many different cell types. It consists of 11 enzymatic steps that convert glucose to lactic acid. Glycolysis is an example of: A aerobic metabolism. B anabolic metabolism. C a net reductive process. D fermentation. E oxidative phosphorylation. 5) The anaerobic conversion of 1 mol of glucose to 2 mol of lactate by fermentation is accompanied by a net gain of: A 1 mol of ATP. B 1 mol of NADH. C 2 mol of ATP. D 2 mol of NADH. E none of the above.
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6) There are a variety of fairly common human genetic diseases in which enzymes required for the breakdown of fructose, lactose, or sucrose are defective. However, there are very few cases of people having a genetic disease in which one of the enzymes of glycolysis is severely affected. Why do you suppose such mutations are seen so rarely? Ans: The glycolytic pathway is so central to all of cellular metabolism that mutations in glycolytic enzymes are lethal; embryos with such mutations would not survive. 7) What is the rate limiting step? What happens at this stage? 8) In an anaerobic muscle preparation, lactate formed from glucose labeled in C-3 and C-4 would be labeled in: A) all three carbon atoms. B) only the carbon atom carrying the OH. C ) only the carboxyl carbon atom. D) only the methyl carbon atom. E) the methyl and carboxyl carbon atoms. 9) Which of the following statements is not true concerning glycolysis in anaerobic muscle? A) Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase is one of the enzymes of the pathway. B) It is an endergonic process. C) It results in net synthesis of ATP. D) It results in synthesis of NADH.
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Copy of HMD2 - WK 2 1 Bioenergetics and thermodynamics If...

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