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300320 Prac 2 Cardiovascular function On completion of these laboratory activities, you should be able to: locate pulse points and determine pulse rates auscultate an apical pulse obtain a measurement of blood pressure from the brachial artery using a sphygmomanometer identify a normal range for blood pressure and pulse rate understand the effects of exercise on blood pressure and pulse rate interpret an ECG and calculate the heart rate from an ECG Remember, you may be examined on any or all of the activities and theory associated with this laboratory work. If you believe there are special circumstances that prevent your participation in these activities, you must notify your laboratory supervisor.
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2 PULSE Arteries are palpable at points where they travel more superficially, particularly when they are superficial to a hard structure such as bone. There are various points on the body where a pulse can be detected. These points can be useful to determine the pulse rate, and also contribute to the assessment of the blood flow to a particular region. Pulse is assessed according to rate (beats per minute), rhythm (regular, irregular, a pattern) and amplitude (strong, weak, faint). Palpate the following pulses (ask for help if you cannot find the pulse, but use your knowledge of anatomical terminology and regions to ‘guess’ where you might find each one). Take the pulse rate over a full minute at each point. Temporal __________ Carotid __________ Brachial __________ Radial __________ Popliteal (may not be possible if wearing long pants) __________ Posterior tibial __________ Dorsalis pedis __________ Apical pulse rate In young children and thin adults, you may be able to feel the heart beat through the chest wall. It is usual to use a stethoscope to auscultate the apical pulse. The location of the stethoscope diaphragm is not absolutely critical, but the best location to listen to the apical pulse is at the fifth intercostal space, midway between the sternal border and the left nipple. This may be heard over light clothing, but you can locate this point under clothing on yourself and hold the stethoscope diaphragm there while your partner listens. After five minutes of no physical activity, count the number of beats over a full minute. One beat consists of two sounds close together (lub-dup). What events within the cardiac cycle correlate with the two sounds? Have one person count a person’s radial pulse rate while another counts the apical beats at the same time. The person counting the radial pulse indicates the start and stop times for counting. Do not count out loud. Apical rate __________ Radial rate __________
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3 Ratio of radial to apical rate __________ A difference between apical and radial rates is termed a pulse deficit. Pulse deficit __________
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