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1. The Nuclear, Plasma and Radiation Universe

1. The Nuclear, Plasma and Radiation Universe - THE NUCLEAR...

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THE NUCLEAR, PLASMA, AND RADIATION UNIVERSE © M. Ragheb 2/4/2009 INTRODUCTION The study of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiation phenomena is a reflection of the nature of, and an attempt at understanding and describing the universe that we belong to. Sustainable human development depends upon such an understanding, and upon using our knowledge in tackling the present and future global challenges of hunger, disease, management of natural resources, environmental pollution and global climate change. In the long term, this would help humanity spread life within and beyond the confines of our Solar System. As the world is becoming more reliant on its scientific advancements, its leaders as scientists and engineers, as well as members of the public in general, need to be aware the role of these fundamental processes and their applications in modern society. These applications can be found in every field of Science and Engineering, at every economical and social level, and every place on Earth. Since human progress goes hand in hand with the dissemination of knowledge, improvement of human well being and increasing the potential for human development depends on the spread of such knowledge about their potential to both decision makers and the people that it touches. For the present's perspective, people around the world are genuinely concerned about the dangers posed by nuclear weapons, are skeptical about the safety of nuclear power generation and are apprehensive about the radiological effects of natural as well as man-made radiation sources. These negative perceptions are neutralizing the potential positive contributions of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiation science to everyday life. THE FORCES OF NATURE It is convenient to consider four fundamental physical interactions that govern our universe. It is suggested that a general law part of the ”Theory of Everything” described these forces at the time of the Big Bang when extremely large energy densities existed. These laws separated at the time of creation of our universe about 13.8 billion years ago, in the Big Bang postulated event. Scientists are still attempting at combining the description of these forces within the framework of the “General Theory.” These are: THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE GENERAL RELATIVITY FORMULATION The theory of General Relativity describes the behavior of gravitation in the Universe. This theory describes gravitation as a warping of space in the presence of matter: the more matter, the more acutely the curving of space. Relativistic models are based on a 4 dimensional space-time continuum. A special case of it that we are familiar
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with on Earth is Newtonian space. This kind of space is flat, and is the 3 dimensional equivalent of a 2 dimensional plane.
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