SPSS Exact Tests - Exact Tests Cyrus R. Mehta and Nitin R....

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Exact Tests Cyrus R. Mehta and Nitin R. Patel
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For more information about SPSS ® software products, please visit our WWW site at http://www.spss.com or contact Marketing Department SPSS Inc. 233 South Wacker Drive, 11th Floor Chicago, IL 60606-6307 Tel: (312) 651-3000 Fax: (312) 651-3668 SPSS is a registered trademark and the other product names are the trademarks of SPSS Inc. for its proprietary computer software. No material describing such software may be produced or distributed without the written permission of the owners of the trademark and license rights in the software and the copyrights in the published materials. The SOFTWARE and documentation are provided with RESTRICTED RIGHTS. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subdivision (c)(1)(ii) of The Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at 52.227-7013. Contractor/manufacturer is SPSS Inc., 233 South Wacker Drive, 11th Floor, Chicago, IL, 60606-6307. General notice: Other product names mentioned herein are used for identification purposes only and may be trademarks of their respective companies. TableLook is a trademark of SPSS Inc. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
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iii Preface Exact Tests is a statistical package for analyzing continuous or categorical data by ex- act methods. The goal in Exact Tests is to enable you to make reliable inferences when your data are small, sparse, heavily tied, or unbalanced and the validity of the corre- sponding large sample theory is in doubt. This is achieved by computing exact p values for a very wide class of hypothesis tests, including one-, two-, and K- sample tests, tests for unordered and ordered categorical data, and tests for measures of association. The statistical methodology underlying these exact tests is well established in the sta- tistical literature and may be regarded as a natural generalization of Fisher’s exact test for the single contingency table. It is fully explained in this user manual. The real challenge has been to make this methodology operational through software devel- opment. Historically, this has been a difficult task because the computational demands imposed by the exact methods are rather severe. We and our colleagues at the Harvard School of Public Health have worked on these computational problems for over a de- cade and have developed exact and Monte Carlo algorithms to solve them. These algo- rithms have now been implemented in Exact Tests. For small data sets, the algorithms ensure quick computation of exact p values. If a data set is too large for the exact algo- rithms, Monte Carlo algorithms are substituted in their place in order to estimate the exact p values to any desired level of accuracy.
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This note was uploaded on 06/11/2010 for the course PSYC 588 taught by Professor Hong during the Spring '08 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.

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SPSS Exact Tests - Exact Tests Cyrus R. Mehta and Nitin R....

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