culture&survey_measureMar08 - Culture and Survey Behavior...

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1 1 Culture and Survey Behavior Timothy Johnson Survey Research Laboratory University of Illinois at Chicago 2 What is Culture? the “shared elements that provide the standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating, communicating, and acting among those who share a language, a historic period, and a geographic location” (Triandis, American Psychologist , 1996).
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2 3 Brislin (1990) “Culture refers to widely shared ideals, values, formation and uses of categories, assumptions about life, and goal-directed activities that become unconsciously or subconsciously accepted as ‘right’ and ‘correct’ by people who identify themselves as members of a society.” 4 Johnson et al. (1997) “We interpret culture to represent a social group with a shared language and set or norms, values, beliefs, expectations and life experiences.”
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3 5 Unpackaging Culture Research has focused on racial, ethnic, or cross-national differences With few exceptions, mechanisms responsible for these identity group differences have been unexplored 6 Some Models of Culture Hofstede (2001) Schwartz (1992) Triandis (1996) Ingelhart (1997) Trompennars and Hampen-Turner (1998)
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4 7 Geert Hofstede: Culture’s Consequences Individualism-Collectivism Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity and Femininity Long- vs. Short-Term Orientations 8 Individualism vs. Collectivism Self identity and personal goals vs. norms, obligations and duties In-groups vs. out-groups Individualists more commonly make cost-benefit decisions Collectivists more likely to monitor other’s behaviors and feelings
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5 9 10 Individualist
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6 11 Individualist Collectivist 12 Power Distance Concerned with social inequality Hierarchy is emphasized The degree to which the less powerful accept that power is distributed unequally High power distance – less likely to question authority Greater acquiescence in countries high in power distance (va de Vijver, 2004)
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7 13 Uncertainty Avoidance Reflects: Tolerance for ambiguity Degree of comfort with unstructured situations Cultures high in UA emphasize strict laws & rules, security measures and beliefs in absolute truth Cultures low in UA exhibit greater tolerance for nonconformity Extreme responding more common in high uncertainty avoidant nations 14 Masculinity vs. Femininity Concerned with distribution of roles between genders: Masculine roles = more assertive In general, women’s values vary less across cultures than do those of men Greater gap in gender values within masculine societies More similarities in gender values within feminine societies
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15 Long- vs. Short-Term Orientations Based on teachings of Confucius Distinguishes East-West countries Long-term orientation emphasizes: Future rewards Short-term orientation emphasizes: Past and present Respect for tradition, fulfilling obligations 16 Shalom Schwartz: Cultural Value Orientations Identifies 3 bipolar dimensions of culture; each represents an alternative resolution
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This note was uploaded on 06/11/2010 for the course SOC 481 taught by Professor Burris during the Summer '09 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.

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culture&survey_measureMar08 - Culture and Survey Behavior...

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