# MR05 - Measurement Scaling Week 5 Overview of Research...

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Measurement & Scaling Week 5

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5-2 Overview of Research Process Step 1: Defining the Problem Step 2: Formulating a Research Design Step 3: Doing Field Work or Collecting Data Step 4: Preparing and Analyzing Data Step 5: Preparing and Presenting the Report
5-3 Learning Outcomes Identify the differences among the four measurement scales Nominal/ ordinal/ interval/ ratio Describe the uses of comparative scales and noncomparative scales Comparative scale – paired comparison/ rank order/ constant sum Noncomparative scale – Likert/ semantic differential/ Stapel Evaluate a scale’s reliability and validity

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5-4 Measurement and Scaling 1. The definition of measurement and scaling 2. The four primary scales 3. Comparison among the primary scales
5-5 Measurement and Scaling Measurement A standardized process of assigning numbers or other symbols to certain characteristics of the objects of interest, according to some specified rules Often deal with numbers, thus Enable the use of mathematical and statistical analysis Enable the communication throughout the world without any translation

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5-6 Measurement and Scaling Gender M F
5-7 Measurement and Scaling Scaling Part of the measurement process The process of creating a continuum on which objects are located according to the amount of measured characteristics they process

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5-8 E.g. Will you buy a “V8” at your next trip to the supermarket? Measurement and Scaling I will buy I will not buy 1 2 I will definitely buy I will probably buy I will not buy I will not buy definitely 1 2 3 4
5-9 Measurement and Scaling Two rules for measurement and scaling One-to-one correspondence between the symbol and the characteristic in the object that is being measured Rules for assignment must be invariant over time and the object being measured

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5-10 Measurement Selecting measurable phenomena Developing a set of mapping rules Applying the mapping rule to each phenomenon
5-11 Characteristics of Measurement

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5-12 Figure 9.3 Primary Scales of Measurement Primary Scales Nominal Scale Ordinal Scale Ratio Scale Interval Scale
5-13 Types of Scales Ordinal interval Ratio Nominal

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5-14 Levels of Measurement Ordinal interval Ratio Nominal Classification
5-15 Nominal Scales Mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories Is used for identifying and classifying objects Do not reflect the relative amounts of the characteristics being measured Districts Denotation Kowloon 1 N.T. 2 HK Island 3

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5-16 Levels of Measurement Ordinal interval Ratio Nominal Classification Order Classification
5-17 Ordinal Scales Characteristics of nominal scale plus an indication of order Implies statement of greater than and less than But cannot determine how much more or less Only differs in terms of their order, not magnitude

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5-18 Levels of Measurement Ordinal interval Ratio Nominal Classification Order Classification Order Classification Distance
5-19 Interval Scales Characteristics of nominal and ordinal scales plus the concept of equality of interval.

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