2030lecture2 - OUTLINE Classification and Phylogeny of...

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1 OUTLINE Classification and Phylogeny of Animals Animal Diversity 5 th Ed. Chapter 4, Pages 72 - 88 4 th Ed. Chapter 4, Pages 72-87 2. Modern Phylogenetic Systematics - Cladistics 3. Sources of Information Lecture 2 - 1 ANIMAL CLASSIFICATION AND RELATIONSHIPS Classification - a broad overview • Carolus Linnaeus (1707 - 1778) • Developed our current scheme of classification - based on morphology - *binomial nomenclature (e.g. Anguilla japonica ) - hierarchical taxonomic framework Kingdom Class Phylum Order Family Genus* Species* 7 mandatory ranks Over 30 taxonomic ranks for complex groups K ing C ame P hillip O ver F or G ood S oup species epithet Lecture 2 - 2
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2 ANIMAL CLASSIFICATION AND RELATIONSHIPS PHYLOGENY [Gk. phylon , race; genesis , descent] history of development of species or other group Homology - character similarity resulting from common ancestry Homoplasy - non-homologous similarity, misrepresents common ancestry Characters - organismal features used to construct a phylogeny [or evolutionary tree] Evolutionary convergence of fusiform shape an example of homoplasy Lecture 2 - 3 MODERN PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEMATICS - CLADISTIC ANALYSIS How do we use character variation to reconstruct phylogeny? Cladistics - evaluation of information for tree building and classification Cladogram - phylogenetic diagram based on cladistic analysis Tiger Domestic cat Common ancestor (to cats) Clade group of organisms that includes most recent common ancestor and all members and descendents of that ancestor Lecture 2 - 4
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This note was uploaded on 06/17/2010 for the course BIOLOGY bio 2030 taught by Professor .. during the Fall '10 term at York University.

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2030lecture2 - OUTLINE Classification and Phylogeny of...

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