ImmunityI - IMMUNITY AND ANTIBODIES Stem cells in bone...

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IMMUNITY AND ANTIBODIES
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Stem cells in bone marrow differentiate into various blood cells
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Phagocytes attack alien cells
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A non-specific reaction Mast cells release histamine Histamine dilates capillaries, which leak complement proteins (serum enzymes)
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A non-specific reaction Complement proteins attract phagocytes Phagocytes move out of capillary
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A non-specific reaction Phagocytes engulf bacteria and other dead cells Phagocytes produce chemical toxins (H 2 O 2 ), which kills the bacteria (and the phagocytes)
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How do cells know when there is an invasion? A signal cascade Signals: Fragment of bacterial or fungal cell wall binds CD14 Toll receptor activated Protein kinase cascade phosphorylates NF-kB NF-kB activates transcription
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Specific immune reactions Discovery: anti-bacterial or anti-viral effect ! Example: smallpox—infection produces severe (often fatal) fever ! Cowpox followed by smallpox—infection usually not successful (Jenner, 1796) !
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