Signals - Cell responses to environment-Signals Signal...

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Cell responses to environment-- Signals
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Signal transduction can coordinate: Development Formation of tissues Timing of cell division Direction of cell enlargement Size and shape of organs Responses to environment Food (and other chemicals) Light Gravity ...
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“Structure of the human ß2- adrenergic receptor (red) embedded in a lipid membrane and bound to a diffusible ligand (green), with cholesterol (yellow) between the two receptor molecules. A cartoon of the lipidic cubic phase used for crystalization of the receptor is shown in the background.” (Control of enzyme activity and gene expression often involves receptors in the plasma membrane.)
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Polar and charged compounds have p.m. receptors Hydrophobic signals can have cytoplasmic receptors Sodium Insulin (a protein) Acetylcholine Pressure Estrogen Cortisol Light
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“Transduction”: the events beween stimulus and response Some signals involved in transduction steps: Phosphorylation (kinases, phosphatases) Voltage across a membrane Protein association/dissociation
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Signals - Cell responses to environment-Signals Signal...

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