Chapter 18 20 - Production vs Consumption Similar to...

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Production vs. Consumption Similar to consumers producers purchase their inputs and sell their outputs and take the prices for those as given Producers maximise profits – consumers maximise utility. The notion of “income” for producers is moot.
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Production vs. Consumption Given the input/output prices a producer needs to decide how much output to produce and how to do this is in the most efficient way. How much to consume was never a problem – a consumer will spend all his income; the question was only how to spend it in the most efficient way. Thus producer faces more elaborate choice problem. We start with the second part – first answer the question how to produce any given level of output in the most efficient way. Then we decide how much output to produce.
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Chapter Eighteen Technology
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Technologies A technology is a process by which inputs are converted to an output. E.g. labor, a computer, a projector, electricity, and software are being combined to produce this lecture.
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Technologies Usually several technologies will produce the same product -- a blackboard and chalk can be used instead of a computer and a projector. Which technology is “best”? How do we compare technologies?
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Example Producing a lathe (turning machine) U.S. – assembly line production India – workers actually carry the lathe along a production line.
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Input Bundles x i denotes the amount used of input i; i.e. the level of input i. An input bundle is a vector of the input levels; (x 1 , x 2 ). E.g. (x 1 , x 2 ) = (6, 9).
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Production Functions y denotes the output level. The technology’s production function states the maximum amount of output possible from an input bundle. y f x x n = ( , , ) 1
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Production Functions y = f(x) is the production function. x’ x Input Level Output Level y’ y’ = f(x’) is the maximal output level obtainable from x’ input units. One input, one output
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Technology Sets A production plan is an input bundle and an output level; (x 1 , … , x n , y). A production plan is feasible if The collection of all feasible production plans is the technology set. y f x x n ( , , ) 1
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Technology Sets y = f(x) is the production function. x’ x Input Level Output Level y’ y” y’ = f(x’) is the maximal output level obtainable from x’ input units. One input, one output y” < f(x’) is an output level that is feasible from x’ input units.
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Technology Sets x’ x Input Level Output Level y’ One input, one output The technology set
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Technology Sets x’ x Input Level Output Level y’ One input, one output y” The technology set Technically inefficient plans Technically efficient plans
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Technologies with Many Inputs What does a technology look like when there is more than one input?
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