final exam study guide

final exam study guide - PSYC 100 Final Exam Study Guide...

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Unformatted text preview: PSYC 100 Final Exam Study Guide Page 1 of 50 Module 1: The study of psychology structuralism; functionalism Structuralism o Edward Titchener aimed to discover the structural elements of mind engage people in self-reflective introspection, training them to report elements of their experience as they looked at a rose, listened to a metronome, etc. o Introspective approach to finding the basic building blocks of the mind Functionalism o Williams James o What evolutionary purposes do emotions/memory/consciousness serve? o Thinking, like smelling, developed because it was adaptive. Consciousness serves a function. Module 3: Research strategies: how psychologists ask and answer questions theory; hypothesis Theory : explains through an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. o Effective theories: effectively organizes range of self reports and observations implies clear prediction that anyone can use to check the theory or derive practical application o a good theory produces testable predictions, called hypothesis. Hypothesis : a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. o such predictions give direction to research by enabling us to test and to reject or revise the theory. o When testing hypothesis, we must be careful of bias. We can test hypothesis and refine theories using: o descriptive methods o correlational methods 2 o experimental methods Module 4: Neural and hormonal systems neuron; central nervous system; autonomic nervous system Neuron : A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system. o Types of neurons: Sensory neurons carry messages from the body's tissues and sensory organs inward to the brain and spinal cord, for processing. The brain and spinal cord then send instructions out to the body's tissues via the motor neurons . Between the sensory input and motor output, information is processed in the brain's internal communication system via its interneurons . o myelin: composed of glial cells Composed of glial cells Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system Oligodendroglia in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) Nodes of Ranvier Gaps in myelin Where voltage-gated sodium channels are connected Central Nervous System : the brain and spinal cord. o I t is the brain that enables our humanity- our thinking, feeling, and acting. o The spinal cord is an information highway connecting the peripheral nervous system to the brain. o The neural pathways governing our reflexes, our automatic responses to stimuli, illustrate the spinal cord's work. Automatic nervous system : the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart), influencing such functions as glandular activity, heartbeat, and digestion....
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final exam study guide - PSYC 100 Final Exam Study Guide...

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