World Geo midterm review

World Geo midterm review - Ch. 8 EUROPE Environmental...

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Ch. 8 EUROPE Environmental geography: Europe is extraordinarily environmentally diverse: range of landscapes from Arctic tundra (northern Scandinavia) to the barren hillsides of the Mediterranean islands, and from explosive volcanoes (southern Italy) to the glaciers of Iceland. o 4 factors to explain this environmental diversity: The latitudinal extent creates opportunities for diversity because region extends from arctic to Mediterranean subtropics. The moderating influence of the Atlantic Ocean, Black, Baltic, and Mediterranean Seas further modify these latitudinal controls. Complex geology of the western extension of the Eurasian landmass produced newest and oldest landscapes in the world. Long history of human settlement has significantly transformed and modified Europe’s natural landscapes 4 main topographic regions of European landscapes o European lowland (from southwest France to northeast plains of Poland + southeastern England)— high population density, intensive agriculture, large cities, and major industrial regions. o Alpine mountain systems (from Pyrenees in the west to Balkan of southeast Europe) –—different regional names, but are geologically similar… Pyrenees provides physical border between France and Spain. o Central Uplands (from France to Eastern Europe, between Alps and European Lowland)——lower in altitude than the Alpine system; important because they contain raw materials for industrial areas. o Western Uplands (on mountains in Spain, portions of British Isles and the highlands of Scandinavia)—— fjords or flooded valley inlets in the coastline of these highlands…cold in climate and sparse vegetation- >extremely thin soils that severely limits agricultural activity. 3 principal climates that characterize Europe: o Maritime climate—along Atlantic coast, moderate and moist, modified by oceanic influences. o Continental climate—further inland, hotter summers and colder winters, with at least 1 month below freezing. o Mediterranean climate— Mediterranean region in the southern Europe, distinct dry season during the summer, attractive to tourists, but seasonal drought is problematic tor agriculture. Europe remains a largely maritime region with access to ocean through interconnect network of navigable rivers and canals. o Major rivers include: Loire, Seine, Rhine, Elbe, and Vistula rivers in the European lowland, that flow into Atlantic or Baltic waters. The Danube River, flows east-south from Germany to the Black Sea and provides a connecting artery between Eastern and Central Europe.
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o Major ports are found at the mouths of most Western European rivers, serving as transshipment points from inland waterways as well as focal points for rail and truck networks. Settlement and population
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World Geo midterm review - Ch. 8 EUROPE Environmental...

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