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Unformatted text preview: EUROPE INTRO: • More than a ½ billion reside in region…over 40 countries • Europe created nation state but nationalism is also it’s downfall , as it led to devastating wars. • European Union helps cooperation • Europe invents globalization? ENVIRONMENTAL GEOGRAPHY:HUMAN TRANSFORMATION OF A DIVERSE LANDSCAPE • Incredible diverse landscape o Complex geology...new and old landscapes o Latitudinal extent o Moderating influence of bodies of water o Long history has transformed landscapes Environmental Issues • Pollution rarely stays within political boundaries…air pollution in England causes acid rain in Sweden o Solutions must come from intergovernmental cooperation o Since 1970 EU adds environ issues to agenda World lead in recycling, waste management, reduced energy use, and sustainable resource use Also has pushed industrialized countries to become more green…tensions w/ US World leader in green campaign • Pollution in E Euro=grim... Soviet period economic planning gives little attention to environmental issues o Environmental costs=high… health risks in Poland 90% of rivers have no aquatic life, and 1/3 of pop will have a disease related to pollution o However future=hopeful b/c EU will extend policies to E Euro members Landform and Landscape Regions • 4 general regions: lowland, alpine mountain system, central uplands, Western uplands • Euro Lowland- AKA N Euro Plain… focus of W Europe, high population density, intensive agriculture, large cities and major industrial region o Many of major rivers have estuaries that empty into Atlantic o Several ports are located here o Rhine River delta…Moraines (glacial debris in Germany and Poland) • Alpine Mountain System- East-West running mountains from Atlantic Ocean to Black Sea o All created more recently o Pyrenees, Alps, Carapthians, Dinaric, Alps located here • Central Uplands-W Europe much older… France and Germany o Lower in elevation that alpine o Contain raw materials for Euro’s industrial area…coal and iron • Western Highlands-Portugal to Brit ish Isles…older mountains o Fjords- flooded valley inlets Fenno-Scandian Shield of Sweden and N Finland Shield Landscape eroded to bedrock by glaciers Lim it agricultural activity Europe’s Climates • Three principal climates o Martime-oceanic influences o Continental-hotter summers and colder winters o Mediterranean- distinct dry season during summer, rainless summers o Marine West Coast-no winter go believe freezing, but rain=common Seas, River, Ports and Coastline • Rivers and Ports o Connected by a system of Canals o Danube and Rhine have diff direction of flow Danube=Europe’s longest o Most rivers have port at mouth • Reclaiming Dutch Coastline o Netherlands want to protect agricultural lands against coastal river flooding Dikes were built Landscapes=polders Windmills=common to drain marshes Zuider Zee project…Amsterdam dammed drained and converted into agricultural land...
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- Fall '10