Day13.interventions

Day13.interventions - e 9 Habits of Highly Effective...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: e 9 Habits of Highly Effective Interventions Monday, March 8 2010 1 1. Effective Interventions are Based on Theory “There is nothing so useful as a good theory” – Kurt Lewin Theory: a comprehensive system of ideas intended to explain a phenomenon or set of relationships 2 Theory. . . Models are theories about how health behaviors work--they try to explain why certain people engage in a behavior and others do not. e.g. Health Behavior Model, Diffusion of Innovations Model. o They look at how certain constructs (e.g. belief that changing behavior will reduce threat) might predict behavior. 3 Construct. . . o o o o Something you measure or manipulate when you’re studying it Can be something you think is a cause or the thing you want to change Unobservable Examples: intelligence, ability, beliefs, desires, creativity, personality characteristics We must come up with a way to measure (operationalize) constructs. We do this by looking at things that are observable that we think are related to that construct. 4 Construct. . . Survey Question1 Outward behavior — observable (e.g. questionnaire responses) Construct Survey Question 2 Survey Question 3 Survey Question 4 Construct Inside person­ unobservable Construct 5 Construct. . . Do you have someone you can go to for help when you need it? If you needed money, is there someone you could ask? Is there someone you can talk to about important things in your life? Outward behavior— observable Perceived Social Support Vulnerability Feelings about health Inside person­ unobservable 6 Construct or not? Creativity? o Extraversion? o Geographic location? o Attitudes? o Belief that costs outweigh risks? o Theory of planned behavior? 7 1. Effective Interventions are Based on Theory Practical: More likely to work Ethical: More likely to think it will work Methodological: Which variables to target How to measure those variables How to interpret your results How to explain why the intervention didn’t work (if it didn’t work) 8 2. Effective Interventions Target Appropriate Levels Individual Perceptions, skills, beliefs, etc. o o o o o o Dyad Community Policy/Legal Super-structural Technological Medical 9 2. Effective Interventions Target Appropriate Levels Individual o Dyad Couples communication and support o o o o o Community Policy/Legal Super-structural Technological Medical 10 2. Effective Interventions Target Appropriate Levels Individual o Dyad o Community Social norms, community resources Policy/Legal o Super-structural o Technological o Medical o 11 2. Effective Interventions Target Appropriate Levels Individual o Dyad o Community o Policy/Legal Changing laws Super-structural o Technological o Medical o 12 2. Effective Interventions Target Appropriate Levels o o o o o Individual Dyad Community Policy/Legal Super-structural Poverty, racism Technological o Medical 13 2. Effective Interventions Target Appropriate Levels o o o o o o Individual Dyad Community Policy/Legal Super-structural Technological New tests or devices Medical 14 2. Effective Interventions Target Appropriate Levels o o o o o o Individual Dyad Community Policy/Legal Super-structural Technological Medical Drugs, treatments 15 3. Effective Interventions are (often) Intense in Size and Scope Sustained interventions are more likely to lead to sustained behavior change o More intense interventions (more sessions) are more likely to result in greater risk reduction Effect size: Must be big enough to matter o 16 4. Effective Interventions Target People at Risk Find out who is at risk risk factor proxy for risk factor o o Find out where your risk group is located Go there, even if it is easier to go somewhere else 17 5. Effective Interventions are Appropriate for the Risk Group/Risk Factor Gender o o o o Age Ethnicity/Culture Sexual Orientation Other 18 6. Effective Interventions are Appropriate for Individuals’ Level of Readiness for Change E.g., Stage Models: They don’t assume everyone is equally ready to change. o Stages of Readiness 1. Unaware of issue 2. Aware but not interested 3. Aware and considering response 4. Decide to take action 5. Initiate behavior 6. Maintain behavior 19 7. Effective Interventions Do Only What They are Supposed to Do Sometimes interventions have unintended effects HIV 2ary prevention study Eating disorder prevention study o Try to foresee these types of problems, if possible, and prevent them from happening 20 8. Effective Interventions Make Preventing Drop­ Outs a Priority Devote resources to preventing attrition Staff person focused on this alone Study Swag, plus newsletter, to keep people involved o Collect data that allow you to assess effects of attrition Stanford 3-City study Can defend yourself from critics 21 9. Effective Interventions are Ethical Run control group through intervention after collecting follow-up data o What will happen when you remove your intervention? o What is your intervention preventing from happening in the community? 22 9. Effective Interventions are Ethical Run control group through intervention after collecting follow-up data o What will happen when you remove your intervention? Schulz and Hanusa o What is your intervention preventing from happening in the community? 23 Schulz (1976) Elderly people in a retirement home randomly assigned to 4 conditions: Predictability Control + predictability Random No treatment (traditional control group) o o Treatment = visited by college students Measured physical and psychological well-being. 24 25 26 9. Effective Interventions are Ethical Run control group through intervention after collecting follow-up data o What will happen when you remove your intervention? o What is your intervention preventing from happening in the community? 27 The 9 Habits of Highly Effective Interventions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Effective interventions are based on theory. Effective interventions target appropriate units of intervention. Effective interventions are intense in size and scope. Effective interventions target people at risk. Effective interventions are tailored to the risk group/risk factor. 28 The 9 Habits of Highly Effective Interventions 1. 2. 3. 4. Effective interventions are appropriate for individuals’ levels of readiness for change. Effective interventions do only what they are supposed to do. Effective interventions make preventing dropouts a priority. Effective interventions are ethical. 29 ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online