110c-lecture12 - Midterm1 Range 32 – 83 Mean 66 Std dev 13 Problem 2 counted as extra credit Melting and Boiling Temperatures vs G G 2 = G 1 V

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Unformatted text preview: Midterm1 Range: 32 – 83 Mean: 66 Std dev: 13 Problem 2 counted as extra credit Melting and Boiling Temperatures vs. G G 2 = G 1 +V ∆ P G 2 > G 1 V P G T = ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ ∂ ∂ S T G P − = ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ ∂ ∂ G = H – TS dG = -SdT + VdP gas liq sol P S S S and S dT dG << < − = ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ sol liq gas T V V V and V P G > >> = ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ δ δ Melting temp Boiling temp-S V Melting Temp vs Press (Benzene vs H 2 O) V P G T = ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ ∂ ∂ Benzene: V s < V ℓ H 2 O: V s > V ℓ S T G P − = ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ ∂ ∂-S V s G 2 = G 1 +V ∆ P V ℓ T fus increase with P T fus decrease with P T fus = 278.7 K (1 atm) T fus = 308.1 K (1000 atm) T fus = 273.15 K (1 atm) T fus = 265.6 K (1000 atm) Chemical Potential ( µ = δ G/ δ n) of Phase Transition liq → gas (liq → gas ) g l dn dn = − liq gas G G G + = liq gas g T P l l T P g g dn n G n G dG ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ − ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ = , , ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ l T P l l g T P g g dn n G dn n G dG , , ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ + ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ = ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ T P g g T P l l g T P l l T P g g n G n G dn n G n G , , , , ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ = ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ ⇒ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ − ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ = ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ At equil, dG = 0: l l l T P l l l g g g T P g g g G n G n G and G n G n G = = ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ = = = ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ = , , ∂ ∂ µ ∂ ∂ µ • When two chemical phases are in equilibrium, l g µ µ = . • Chemical potentials are like electrical potentials; if l g µ µ > , then matter will flow from high to low potential (gas to liquid). • When g l µ µ > liquid will spontaneously convert to gas and vice versa. ) ( ln 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 l l l g g l l g g P P V P P RT dP V dP V − = ∫ = ∫ Pressure vs Temperature Curve for Phase Change l l l g g g d n dG n dG d µ µ = = = at equil. dT S dP V dT n S dP n V n dG d − = − = = µ dT S dP V dT S dP V l l g g − = − V T H V S V V S S dT dP trs trs trs trs l g l g ∆ ∆ = ∆ ∆ = − − = dT V T H dP trs trs T T P P ∆ ∆ ∫ = ∫ 2 1 2 1 Clapeyron Eqn 1 1 2 1 2 ln T T T T T − ≈ 1 2 1 2 ln T T V H P P trs trs ∆...
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This note was uploaded on 06/22/2010 for the course CHEM 21360 taught by Professor Ame during the Spring '09 term at East Los Angeles College.

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110c-lecture12 - Midterm1 Range 32 – 83 Mean 66 Std dev 13 Problem 2 counted as extra credit Melting and Boiling Temperatures vs G G 2 = G 1 V

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