110c-lecture1 - Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics Thermo...

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Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics Thermo vs. Kinetic Properties of Chemical reactions. A B k f K eq = [B]/[A] (Thermo) k f = forward rate constant (Kinetics) Thermo predicts how far a rxn proceeds (i.e. % yield). Kinetics measures how fast (seconds, minutes or millenia). Rxn coordinate Energy A B Δ E a K eq = [B]/[A] exp(- Δ Gº/RT) k f exp(-E a /RT) C(s) diamond C(s) coal A B k f B A Time Conc
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Lec1 pp 765-779 Thermodynamics is the study of macroscopic properties (energy, pressure and temperature) and their relations at equilibrium (infer overall driving force ). Observable macroscopic properties are an average from vast numbers of molecules (1 mol=10 23 ). Thermodynamics can predict the following: ± Whether or not a process will occur (spontaneous vs. nonspontaneous). ± Whether or not two molecules will bind to one another. ± How much solute will dissolve in a particular amount of solvent. ± Maximum yield of a chemical synthesis vs. T and P. ± How much electrical work a battery can do. ± How much salt is needed to melt ice off the road. ± Whether or not a molecule will crystallize under a particular set of conditions. ± Average size of a protein molecule in solution (hydrodynamic radius). ± Temperature at which a protein unfolds. ± Temperature at which a solid will melt. ± Whether or not lipid bilayer membranes spontaneously assemble. What thermodynamics cannot do? ± Rates and Efficiencies—thermo provides no information about how fast a process proceeds. ± Thermo does NOT tell us how fast a battery supplies electrical energy or how fast the living cell hydrolyzes ATP. ± Thermo considers only the final and initial states of a process and ignores all details in between. Chapter 19: Energy and First Law of Thermodynamics (Chapter 19 Practice Problems 2, 4, 12, 19, 21, 23, 35, 38, 39, 52, 53)
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System: Part of universe we are studying (stuff inside RB flask). Surroundings: Everything else (flask, air in atmosphere etc.) Work (w), Heat (q) and Energy (U): w = energy transfer due to unbalanced forces between system and surroundings. w = -Force*Distance in units of Joules (N·m or kgm 2 /s 2 ) w < 0 : system opposes external force (stuff in flask expands). w > 0 : system displaced in same direction as external force. q = energy transfer due to temperature difference between sys. and surr. q = thermal energy transfer that causes random molecular motions. q < 0 : system loses thermal energy, k B T (gets cooler, Temp).
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This note was uploaded on 06/22/2010 for the course CHEM 21360 taught by Professor Ame during the Spring '09 term at East Los Angeles College.

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110c-lecture1 - Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics Thermo...

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