Chemistry Definitions

Chemistry Definitions - IB CHEMISTRY SUMMARY M Waters I...

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IB CHEMISTRY SUMMARY –M Waters I take no responsibility for the accuracy of these notes! Actually I take no responsibility for anything whatsoever. In case you were wondering, ive gone through the whole syllabus, including my options, and written out definitions and notes under headings. Places where I needed more revision (ie the options) are covered in greater detail. SL Mole: 6.02 x 10 23 of something also n= m/M (n = number of moles, m = mass, M = Molar mass) Avogadros number: 6.02 x 10 23 Molar Mass: The mass (in grams) per mole of a substance where C 12 is exactly 12g. Molecular Mass: The mass per mole of a substance where C 12 is exactly 12g. Empirical formula: The simplest ratio of the atoms in a chemical compound. Molecular formula: The actual ratio of the atoms in a chemical compound. Limiting reagent: The reagent that limits or determines the amount of product that can be formed in a reaction. The reaction occurs only until the limiting reagent is used up. Solvent: In a solution, the dissolving medium Solute: In a solution, the dissolved particles. Concentration: The number of moles per unit volume of a substance. Mass Number: A X : the A, represents the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Atomic number: Z X: The Z, represents the total number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Isotope: Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Continuous spectrum: A spectrum representing all the colours of the rainbow: ROYGBV, with no distinction between colors. Line Spectrum: Also known as absorption spectrum, all wavelengths have been absorbed by an atom (or whatever) as the light has passed through, except a few and these are shown as lines on the spectrum. Emission spectrum: Shows the wavelenths of the lines that have been emitted, will consist of a continuous spectrum with a few lines blacked out. (that have been absorbed) Atomic Radius: Half the distance between the centres of two atoms in a compound. Ionic radius: Same as atomic radius except for ions. (?) Electronegativity: The tendency for the atoms of the element to attract electrons when they are chemically combined with another element. Polarity: In a polar molecule one end of the molecule is slightly negative and one end is slightly positive. The polarity is a measure of this. Intermolecular bond: The force of attraction between atoms in a molecule. Intramolecular bond: The force of attraction between molecules.
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Alkali metals: A group 1 metal. Halogen: A group 7 atom Halide: A group 7 ion. Metal: An atom from the left of the periodic table displaying metal- like properties. Non Metal: An atom from the right of the periodic table displaying non metal like properties. Acidic oxide:
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Chemistry Definitions - IB CHEMISTRY SUMMARY M Waters I...

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