Chemistry

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–11. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 10: Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes Chemistry 8/e Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A. Zumdahl 1
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Unlike gases, liquids and solids have strong attractive forces between the particles. We will examine -the nature of these attractive forces -how they arise from the polarity of the particles Schematic representations of the three states of matter 2
Background image of page 2
Introduction • Gases –Gas particles act independent of one another –Attractive forces are very weak • Particles are free to move randomly • Occupy whatever space available Liquids and solids are different from gases in that they have strong Attractive Forces between molecules. 3
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Forces Intermolecular forces are attractive forces between molecules . Intramolecular forces hold atoms together in a molecule. Intermolecular vs Intramolecular 41 kJ to vaporize 1 mole of water ( inter ) 930 kJ to break all O-H bonds in 1 mole of water ( intra ) Generally, inter molecular forces are much weaker than intra molecular forces. “Measure” of intermolecular force boiling point melting point D H vaporization D H sublimation 4
Background image of page 4
Intermolecular Forces Also called Van der Waals forces Attractive forces between molecules that hold them together at certain temperatures. result from the mutual attraction of unlike charge or mutual repulsion of like charges repulsion attraction 5
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Van der Waals forces • Four main types: • Dipole-dipole • Ion-dipole • Hydrogen bonding • Dispersion forces Not every molecule has all of four types of forces. 6
Background image of page 6
Intermolecular Forces Forces between molecules. dipole-dipole attraction : molecules with dipoles orient themselves so that “+” and “-” ends of the dipoles are close to each other. hydrogen bonds : dipole-dipole attraction in which hydrogen is bound to a highly electronegative atom. (F, O, N) 7
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Intermolecular Forces Dipole-Dipole Forces Attractive forces between polar molecules Orientation of Polar Molecules in a Solid 8
Background image of page 8
Intermolecular Forces Ion-Dipole Forces Attractive forces between an ion and a polar molecule Ion-Dipole Interaction 9
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
interaction of two polar molecules. (b) The interaction
Background image of page 10
Image of page 11
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 33

Chapter 10 - Chemistry 8/e Steven S. Zumdahl and Susan A....

This preview shows document pages 1 - 11. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online