Ch 14

Organizational Behavior

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1. Describe the perceptual process model of communication.  Communication is a process of consecutively linked elements. Historically, this process was described in terms of a conduit model.  Criticisms of this model led to development of a perceptual process model of communication that depicts receivers as information processors who create the meaning of messages in  their own mind. Because receivers' interpretations of messages often differ from those intended by senders, miscommunication is a common occurrence. 2. Describe the barriers to effective communication.  Every element of the perceptual model of communication is a potential process barrier. There are nine personal barriers that commonly  influence communication: (1) variable skills in communicating effectively, (2) variations in how information is processed and interpreted, (3) variations in interpersonal trust, (4)  stereotypes and prejudices, (5) big egos, (6) poor listening skills, (7) natural tendency to evaluate Others' messages, (8) inability to listen with understanding, and (9) nonverbal  communication. Physical barriers pertain to distance, physical objects, time, and work and office noise. Semantic barriers show up as encoding and decoding errors because these  phases of communication involve transmitting and receiving words and symbols. 3. Contrast the communication styles of assertiveness, aggressiveness, and nonassertiveness.  An assertive style is expressive and self-enhancing but does not violate others' basic human rights.  In contrast, an aggressive style is expressive and self-enhancing but takes unfair advantage of others. A nonassertive style is characterized by timid and self-denying behavior. An  assertive communication style is more effective than either an aggressive or nonassertive style.
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