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Unformatted text preview: Note: Bold page number indicates a figure: fin/fr page number indicates a table. A A antigens. 7077l. 7] AB antigens. 18 Aberrations. chromosomal. 183. 372 ABO blood groups. 69—71. 76. 373 Abortive transcription. 322 Abortive transduction. 151 Absolute population size. 667 Absorption of ultraviolet (UV) light, 251 Absorption spectrum. 2.39. 240 Ac—Ds system in maize. 383784. 383. 384 Accntric chromatid. 204 Acetylated histones. 416 Acetylation. 295 Aeetylcholinesterase (ACE), 627—28, 627 Acbondroplasia. 58. 630 Achromatopsia. 632 At'i'nm-riirjubnttts. 567, 667 Acridine dyes. 370471 . 371 Acridine orange. 370. 371 Acrocentric Chromosome. 20. 21 Actin. 6. 353 Actin derived microfilaments. 19 Action spectrum. :39. 240 Activation energy. 354 Activators. 418720 Active site. 354 Acute transforming retroviruses, 449 ADA immune deficiency. 11 Adaptation hypothesis, 138 Adaptive enzymes. 393 Adaptive mutation in bacteria. 362—63 Adaptor molecule. 309 Additive alleles. 601. 601. 602 Additive variance. 607 Adelbei‘g. Edward. 1—15 Adenine (A). 5. 84. 24.1. 242. 247. 369 Adenine ntelhylase. 378 Adenomas. 448 Adenosine deaminase (ADA). 561 Adenosine triphosphate lATPt. 19. 243 Adenyl cyclase. 398 Adjacent segregation. 206 A—DNA. 1—18—49. 2.49 Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). 11 Adult stem cells, 595 Advanced backcross QTL method. 61 | AFLSUL. 501 AF2. 501. 501 Affyntetrix. Inc. 560 Aflatoxin. 45.1 Agarose gels. 257 Agouti coat phenotypes. 66. 7'3. 76 Agriculture biotechnology in. 9, 550752 concerns about genetically modified organisms. 551752 nutritional enhancement of crop plants. 550—5 l. 552 transgenic crops and herbicide resistance. 550. 551 Green Revolution in. 61 l Agrobacteritmt—rnediath transformation. 159 Agmbacterium timn'f'aciens. 465. 550, 55] AIDS. 328. 620 Alagille syndrome. 594 Albinism. 57—58. 58. 74. 74 Alexandra. Tsarina. 226. 376 Alkaptonut‘ia. 58, 343—44 littlkylating:I agents. 370. 370. 371 Allele frequencies See also Population genetics calculating. 618—20. 519. 6/9. 630. 621 genetic drift and. 632 mutation and. 629730. 630 natural selection as driving force in changing. 62-1—29, 625. 626 nonrandom mating and. 632734 Alleles. 4. '22. 42. 5 l . 67 additive. 601. 68]. 602 in altering phenotypes. 67 lethal. 72m74. 73 multiple. 70772. 70 mutant, 67 non-additive, 601 null. 67 symbols for. 43 wild-type. 67. 68. 102 Alleleispecific oligonucleotides [ASO). 55(k57. 55'? Albion ceprt, '12 Allolactosc, 395a Allopolyploidy. 194—98. 196. 197 Allostcric. 395 Allotetraploid, 196 Allow-my. Lionel J.. 235 Allozytnes. 642. 643 Allzadch. Ash, 559 al-Atttittypsin, 553 aiGlobin genes. 5034!. 503 a-Glucosidase, 554 ct Helix. 351 Alphathalassemia. 429 Alphoid family, 299 Alquist. Jon, 654 Alternate segregation. 206 Alternation of generations, 33 Alternative splicing, [80, 3'26 Drosopltt'la sex determination. 426—27. 427 pathways for mRNA. 423 protein production and. 425 All; family, 300. 386 Alzheimer disease (AD). 11. 353. 429 Down syndrome and. 191 Ames, Bruce. 377 Ames test, 377 in assessing mutagenicity of compounds. 377. 377 Amino acids= 6 methylation and phosphorylation of, 295 structure of, 350 Aminoacyladenylic acid, 338 Aminoacyl sites. 339 Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. 337738 Amino group. 349—50 Z-Amino purine (Z-AP), 370 Amniocentesis. l92793, 555. 555 Amphidiploid, 196 Ampicillin, resistance to. 147 Amplicon. 174 Ampliconic region. 174 Amyloidosis. 11 Ainyloid B—protein. 4'29 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 1 1. 543—44. 543 Anabolism. 354 Anagenesis. 641. 641 Anapl'tase, 3. 23, '36 Anaphase [, 29, 30 Anaphase ll. 30, 3D Andersen. Jens. 508 Anderson, Anna. 226 Andersson, Siv, 658 I-1 1-2 index Anemia prenatal diagnosis of, 555—56, 55';r sickle-cell, 6—7. 10, 11. 58, 98. 258. 347—48, 347. 361, 429 prenatal diagnosis of. 555456, 556 Aneupioitly, 18S viability in human, 193494 Artgelrnan syndrome (AS). 89 Anhidt’otic ectodermal dysplasia. 177, 178 Animals cloned, 9—10, 509 domesticated. 2—5 transgenic, 10, 10, 240 Annealing, 467 Annotation, 487-88 Aurennapedia {Amp-C) complex, 585786 Amemmpedin (Ain‘p) gene. 585 Anthrax, 406 Anticancer drugs, 28] Anticodon. 311. 335 Anticodon loop, 336 Antigens, 24 A, 70—71, 71 AB. 18 B, 70—71, 71 histoconipatibility, 18 MN, 18 R11. 126 Antiparalle] chains, 246 Antiparallel strands in DNA synthesis. 272—73 Aurr'rrliiuum mujus, 22 Antisense oligonucleotides, 328 Antisense RNA. 251, 328 Antiterniinator hairpin, 4024-3, 402 Anti—TRAP (AT), 404 AFC. 442 AP endonuclease. 379 APOA gene cluster, 499—500, 500 APOIV gene, 500. 500 Apoptosis. 441—43, 441, 594, 594 Apurinic sites. 368—69, 369 Apyrimidinic (AP) site, 379 Aquifer aeolicus. 493, 493 Ambidnpsis. 22. 484. 517, 538, 590, 643—44. 648—49 flower development in, 58930. 589. 590 genomes of, 495, 496 homeotic selector genes in, 590 as model organism, 12, 13 Arabinose (um) operon, 40445, 405 Archaea. genomes of, 493 Arcmeeplmlus gazelle, 667 Arctoceplmlus 0013100113, 667 Arginine. 346 Argonaute proteins, 426 Amtzen. Charles 1., 159 Arornatase. 182 Artificial selection. 60778, 607—8, 642 ASCUHilj-‘Cfll‘t’i, 133 Ascospores, 121. 122, 217 Ascus. 121, 122. Ashltenazi lens. 59 Aspergillus, ] 18 Aspergillus nidut’nns, 22 Assortive mating, 633 Astbury, William, 245 Asthma, 328 A subunit, 159 Ataxia I‘elangiectasia, 58 ATprOteins in governing attenuation in Bacillus subfilitt‘, 4034, 403 Attenuated vaccines. 554 Attenuation in B. subrt'lis, 403—4 during regulation of trp operon in Escherichia coll. 402—3, 402 Attenuator, 402 Autocatalytic RNA, 324425, 325 Autogamy, 2.23 Antoinducers, 406 Autonomously replicating sequences (ARSs). 275 Autopolyploidy, 194496, 195 Autoradiography, 266 Autoregulation, 437' Autosomal mutation, 363—64 Autotetrapioids, 195 Autotriploids, 195 Auxotrophs, 87, 138, 375 Avery, Oswald, 4, 233, 235—36 Avirulent strains. 234 5-Azacytidine. 422—23, 423 Azoospermia. 11 B Bacillus antlu‘oct's, 406 Bacillus megnt‘ert'um in genome ruralysis, 491 Bacillus .rubtilt's, 152, 163 TRAP and AT proteins in governing attenuation in. 403—4, 403 Bacteria. 19. '20. 138 See also Escherichia colt adaptive mutation in, 362~63 antibiotic—resistant, 406 conjugation in. 139—46, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, .145 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in, 268471 detection of mutations in, 365, 375 F+ and F’, 140411, 141 insulin production by, 552453. 553 quorum sensing in. 406 spontaneous mutation of, 138—39 Bacterial chromosomes, 287—90, 288, 288 artificial, 462—63, 463 supercoiling in. 289490 Bacterial proteome, effect of environment on, 507 Bacterial recombination, Rec proteins in, 146 Bacterial RNA, 5'17 Bacterial transposons, 382—83, 383 Bacteriophage lambda, 287 Bacteriophages. 138, 148751 intergenic recombination and, 153—54, 153, 154 lysogeny. 150—51 phage T4, structure and life cycle, 148—49, 149 ¢X174. 239. 269770, 287, 288, 316 plaque assay, 149 T1, 138, 362 T2. 236437 T-even series of, 287 BAK protein, 450 Balancer chromosomes, 519 Balbiani, E. G., 290 Baldness, pattern. 85, 85 B antigens, 70—71, 71 Bar-eye mutation in Dmsophiln, 201. 202 Barker, Philip, B4 Barnett, Leslie, 308 Barr, Murray L., 176 Barr bodies. [76 Barsky. Georges, 126 Basal body. 20 Basal lamina, 447 Basal transcription complex, assembe of. 417—20, 418 Base analogs, 370. 371 Base excision repair (BER), 379—80, 380 Base pairs {bp), 471 standard vs. anomalous arrangements. 368, 368 Base—substitution mutations, 367 Base substitutions. 364 Basic leucine zipper (bZlP), 418, 4'20. 420 Bassler, Bonnie, 406 Bateson, William. 77. 343. 34-4, 601 BAX protein, 444—15 Bel2. 442 B—DNA, 248—49, 249 Beadle. George, 87. 344—46. 347, 375 Beasley, J. 0,, 1.97 Becker muscttlar dystrophy (BMD), 3'73 Beet. E. A., 347 Behavior, 2 Behavioral mutations, 365 Benign tumor, 436 Benzer, Seymour, 154456 Berget. Susan, 323 Bertram. Ewart G.. 176 Bertrand, Kevin, 402 B chains, 348 B-Gaiactosidase, 394, 552453 B—Globin gene, 323, 414—15. 503—5, 503 prenatal genotyping for mutations in, 555—56, 557 B—Globin mRNA. 471 [3 pleated—sheet, 351, 351 Bidirectional replication. 266, 268 Bilateral gynandromorph. 180481 Biliary switch genes. 578—79 role of, in development, 578479. 578, 579, 5 79‘ Binomial theorem. 52454 Biochemical functions, mutational analysis of, 528439 Biochemical pathways, analysis of, 346, 347 Biochemical variations, 365 Biodiversity. 664 Biofilms, 406 Biological catalysis. 354, 354 Biological diversity. protein structure as basis of, 349—53, 352 Biological function. proteins and, 6 Biologically active DNA. synthesis ol‘. 269—70 Biological species concept. 647 Biology cell. 2 molecular. 3 Bioluminescence. 406 Biotechnology. 549—74 in agriculture. 9. 550452 concerns about genetically modified organisms. 55 [—52 nutritional enhancement ot'crop plants. 550—51. 552 transgenic crops and herbicide resistance. 550. 551 DNA fingerprinting. 567—68. 568 in forensics. 258. 479. 568 ethical issues growing out ot'E-luman Genome Project. 563m64 gene therapy. 10. 560—63. 561. 569 ethical concerns over. 563—64 future of. 562—63. 56.? new vectors for. 563. 563 problems and failures in. 563 for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). 561—62. 561. 562 genetically engineered pharmaceutical products. 553—55 insulin production in bacteria. 552. 553. 553 transgenic animal hosts and. 553—54, 554 transgenic plants and edible vaccines, 554455. 554. 555 genetic disorders diagnosed and screened using. 555460. 555. 557. 553. 561! DNA microarrays. 557—60. 558. 55.9 drug development. 558 ethical dilemmas in. 560 genome scanning. 559—60. 560 prenatal diagnosis of sickle-cell anemia. 333—36. 556 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and. 556-5 7. 557. 558 in genetics and medicine. 10—1 1 impact of. 9—11 recombinant DNA technology to lind and map genes in human genome. 564—67 fluorescent in sin: hybridization (FISH) gene mapping. 566—67. 567 linkage analysis using RFLPs. 565, 565. 566 positional cloning. 565466. 566 RFLPs as genetic markers. 564—65. 564 Biparental inheritance. 22 Bisexuality. I66 Bistort berttlctrt'a. 640. 670 Biritomx (BX-C) complex. 585. 586 Bittles. Alan. 634 Bivalents. 28. 28. 29. 190 Blackburn. Elizabeth. 273 Blastocysts. 595 Blixt. Stig. 128 BLM gene. Ill.) Bloom syndrome. 1'20 Blotting. 255 Boehringer Ingelheim. 328 Bombay phenotype. 71—72. 72. 75 Bombyx mm'r’. 23 Borrelin bingdorferi in genome analysis, 49] Bar taunts. 22 Bottleneck. population. 667. 670. 671) Boveri. Theodor. 4. 49. 82. IO] Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (ESE). 356 Brachydactyly. 56‘ Branch diagram. 47-49. 48. 48 Branch point. 326 Brassim otemcm. 197 BRCA] gene. 68. 452 BRCA2 gene. 442. 452 Breast cancer. 11. 447 genes in, 4.52 genetic testing and. 452 Brenner. Sidney. 308, 309. 317—18 Bridges. Calvin. 49. 72. 82. [06. 178. 201 Brink. Alexander. 383 Britten. Roy. 255. 256. 293 Broad-sense heritability. 606 Brontodeoxyuridine (BrdU). [20. 371) S~Bromouracil tS-BU). 370. 370 Briinn Society of Natural Science. 49 B subunit. 159 Bubonic plague. 626 Burkitt's lymphoma. 436. 522 Bypass suppressor. 527. 528 C C-3' end. 243. 244 C-5' end. 243. 244 CAAT box. 321. 414 Caenorltabdin's elegans. 12. 13. 22, 166. 168—69. 169. 178. 517. 538. 549 cell-cell interactions in. 590—94. 59]. 593 development of. 591—92. 591 in Human Genome Project (HGPl. 8 miRNA genes in. 4'26 organization of genome. 494—95. 495 programmed cell death in. 594. 594 vulva formation in. 592494. 592. 593 Cairns. John. 267. 270 Callus. 465 Campbell. Keith. 509 Cancer, 43456. 434, 435 age—related. 436—37. 436 breast. 44 7. 452 cell—cell contact and. 446417 cell cycle regulation in, 439—46. 440. 441 cervical. 437. 437 chromosome translocations. 438. 438 c-myc expression and. 532 colon. 13. 447. 448. 448 drug development for. 558 environmental agents in. 451 FAP and colon. 448. 4-48 fragile sites and. 209 as genetic disease. 435437 inherited predispositions to. 447—49. 447 lung. 435 metastasis. 447 Index 1-3 microarray analysis of. 558. 559 as multistep process. 436—37 oncogenes and. 443 probabilities in the United States. 435 susceptibility genes and. 447 tumor—suppressor genes and. 442. 444—46 viruses and. 449—51. 449. 450 Cancer cells clonal origin of. 436 genetic defects in. 437—42 cell cycle regulation and. 43942. 440. 441 genomic stability and DNA repair and. 437439. 438. 439 knryotype of. 435 Cancer genes. 517 Curtisfimtflt'm'is. 22 Curtis tapas. 665. 669. 669 Canola. genetically modified. 9 Capsule. 18 Captive-breeding programs. 667. 671—72. 671 Carbon. John. 299 Carbon atom. central. 349—50 Carboxyl group. 349—50 Carcinogens. 377. 436—37. 451 Carcinomas in rim. 437. 437 Carnegie. .lames George Alexander Banneiman. 22 Carr. David H.. l93—94 Caspases. 44142 Castle. William. 6l8. 659 Catabolism. 354 Ctttabolite-activaiing protein (CAP). 398499. 399 Ctttabolite repression. 398. 420—22. 421 Catalytic domains. 354 Cataracts. 375. 376 Cattle. milk yield in. 85 CavallLSt‘orza. Luca. 140. Hi C—banding. 296. 296 CC—CKR-5 gene. 620 CCRS-c‘132. 620—22. 621. 621. 626427. 626 CCRS gene. 620—22 CCRS protein. 620. 620 CDC-'2 gene. 530 CDC28 gene. 540 CDK gene. 68 cDNA. 24849, 469 cDNA libraries, 469—70. 470 Cech. Thomas. 324 Celcra Corporation. 8. 477 Cell biology. 2 Cell boundaries. l8 Cellwcell interactions. 446—47, 577. 593 in Caenw‘hubditis elegans development. 590. 591 Cell coat. 18.19 Cell cycle. 23—24. 24 cancer and regulation of. 439—46. 440. 441 checkpoints. 440—42. 440 genes in yeast. 539440 genetic regulation of. 23—24. 23 signal transduction and. 43940 Cell death. programmed. 441—42. 4-11. 594 1-4 Index Cell division, tumor-suppressor genes in suppressing. 442 Cell-free system, synthesizing polypeptides in, 309, 310 Cell function, altemative splicing and, 423—25, 424 Cell furrow, 26 Cell plate, 26 Cell proliferation, 436 Cell respiration, 19 Cells, 2 identifying minimum genome for living, 502—3 Cell stmcttu'e. genetic function and, 18—20, 19 Cellular blastoderm, 580, 581 Cellulose, 18 Cell wall, 18 CEN, 299 Centimorgans (CM), 1051:. 565 Central carbon atom, 349—51) Central dogma of genetics. 6, 232, 232 Central tendency, 603 Centric fusion, 206, 207 Centrioles, 19, 20 Centromere, 3, 20, 2| Centromeric DNA sequences, 298—99. 299 Centrosome. 20, 25 c-erbB. 442 Cervical cancer. 437, 437 c-fos, 442 CFTR-A508, 630 CFTR gene, 536, 644 Chain elongation. 268, 3 I 9—20 Chain termination, 476 Chambon. Pierre. 323—24 Chance deviation, 52. 54 influence of, on genetic data, 54-56 Chaperone proteins. 353 Chaperonins, 353 Chargaff, Erwin. 233, 244, 247 Charging, 337—38 Chase, M artha, 237—38 Cherenleteff—Sfiri, Xenia, 227 Chernobyl, 387 legacy of. 387 Chevillon, Christine, 627 Chiasma, 28, 29 Chiasmata, 104. 107 crossing over and, 117—18 Chimpanzee genome, 498—99, 499 Chin-Yih On. 656 Chironomus rhmnmi, 341 Chi-square analysis, 54—56, 55, 55 Chlamydommtas. 121, 166—67, 167, 219 chloroplast mutations in, 216, 216 life cycle of, 121, 167 tetrad analysis in. 124—26. 124. 125 C hlamydomonas rein/mrdi, 22 Chloramphenicol, resistance to, 147 Chloroplast DNA (chNA), 218—21 , 219 in explaining organelle heredity, 218—21, 219 molecular organization and gene products of, 219—21, 219 Chloroplasts, 18. 19-21) mutations in Ch(amydamanas, 216. 216 variegalion in {our o’clock plants. 215, 2l5 Chlorpyril'os. 627—28, 627 Cholera, eradicating, 159 Cholera toxin. genetic control of production, 406 Chorionic villus sampling (CVS), 192—93, 555 Chromatic liber, 286 Chromatids. 25 double exchange between two nonsister, 107—8, 107 sister, 20, 21, 25, 27 Chromatin, 18—19, 19, 290, 292—96 chromosomes versus, 33, 34 Chromatin remodeling, 295, 295. 320 histone modification and, 416—17, 417 transcription and, 415—16, 416, 417 Chromatin structure nucleosomes and, 292—94, 292, 293. 294 Chromomeres. 28, 29, 290 Chromosomal aberrations, 188, 372 Chromosomal painting, comparative. 500—50 1 , 501 Chromosomal sex determination (C5D), 181 Chromosomal theory, of inheritance. 49, 82. 106 Chromosome 1 1, human, 499—500 Chromosome 21 and 22, human, 498. 498, 499 Chromosome bandin g, 296—97. 296. 297 Chromosome jumping, 128 Chromosome mapping, 100—136 crossing over as basis of determining distance between genes during, 104—7 determining gene sequence during. 107—14 Hfr bacteria and, 14-1414, 143, 144, I45 in maize, 111—14 using molecular analysis of DNA. 128 Chromosome imitations, 4, 187—213 deletions, 199—200, 199, 199, 200 duplications. 200—203, 200 inversions in, 203—5, 203, 204 monosomy, 188, 189—90 nondisiunction, 188, 189 polyploidy, 194—98, 195 specific terminology, 188, I88 translocations. 198—99, 198. 206—7, 206 trisoniy, 188, 190—94, 192 variation in structure and arrangement of chromosomes, 198—99, 198 Chromosome ntttnher meiosis and, 27—30, 27 variations in See also Chromosome mutations from nondisjunction, I88, 189 terminology describing, 188, 188 Chromosomes, I. I8 bacterial, 289—90 bacterial artificial, 462—63, 463 balancer, 519 chromatin versus, 33, 34 cyclic variations in arrangements of, 645 in diploid organisms, 20—22 genes linked on same, 101—3, 101 l'ieteromorphic, 166 homologous, 3 human, 11 karyotyping of human. 187 lampbrush. 287, 290, 291—92, 291 number of, in organism, 22 polytenc, 200, 200, 290—91, 290, 291 sex, 166 sex-determining, 22 variation in structure and arrangement of. 198—99, 198 viral, 289—90 Chromosome shortening, 300 Chromosome-specific libraries, 468—69, 469 Chromosome territory, 413 Chromosome theory of inheritance, 3—4 Chromosome walking, 128. 528 Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CIVIL), 438, 438 CIBA Vision, 328 Cichlitls, 651—52, 652 Cigarette smoking, 451 cis—acting elements, 319. 393 cis regulators, 414 Cistron, 155—56 Citrulline, 346 C-kil, 442 Cladogenesis, 641, 641 Clamp, 321 Clark. 13., 337 Clarke, Louis, 299 C13 technique, 524, 525 Cleavage pattern, 458 Cleaver, James. 380 Cleveland, Don, 428 Cline, Tom, I80 Clocks, molecular. 655—56, 656 Clone-by-clone method, 486, 486 Cloned sequences characterizing, 471—78, 472. 473. 475 in libraries, 468—7 1, 469 recovering. from library. 470-71 using probes to identify specific, 470—71 Clones, 7—8, 177 DNA sequencing in characterizing, 474—78. 475, 476 screening Iibrary for specific, 471, 472 Cloning of Dolly, 9, 10. 509 in Escherichia coli cells.~163, 464 in eukaryotic hosts, 464—65, 464 without host cells, 466—68, 467 of humans. 509—10 positional, 485. 566, 566 shotgun, 486, 486, 487 Cloverleaf model oftRNA, 336, 337 c-myc gene, 442, 522 C03 sensitivity, 224 Coactivators, 420 Coadapted gene complexes, 673 Cockayne syndrome, 381 Codominance, 69 Codominant inheritance. 69 Codon bias. 488 Codons, 307 nonsense. 309 Coefficient of coincidence, l 14 Coefficient of inbreeding. 633. 633 Colchicine. 195. 195 Colicins. 147 Colinearity. 349. 349 Collagen. 6. 353 Colon cancer. 13. 447. 448. 448 l'amilial adenomatous polyposis (PAP) and. 448. 448 Color-blindness. 58. 32. 83. 83 Co] plasmid. 147 Combined DNA Index System (CODIS). 567—68 Commercialization. issue of. 2 Comparative genomics. 435. 499—505. 504 analysis of nuclear receptors and drug development. 501—2. 501 finding new genes using. 499—500. 500 human disease genes identified using. 500. 500 minimum genome for living cells. 502—3 model organisms and. 503501. 501 multigene families. 503—5. 503. 504. 505 versatility 01’. 4994503 Compartment. 581 Compensation loop. 199 Competence. 147 Compiling. 487 Complementarity. 347. 264 Complementary DNA [CDNA]. 248—49. 469 Complementary gene interaction, 77 Complementary relationship. 5 Complementatiou. 75. 381 analysis of. 155. 535726. 526 by r” mutations. 155~56. 156 Complementation assay. 155—56 Complementarion groups. 155. 381. 526 Complete linkage. 102. 103 Complete medium. 138. 375 Complete transduction. 152 Complex Lraits. 600 Compounds. Ames test in assessing mutagenicity 01'. 377. 377 Computer databases. gene mapping using annotated. 128 (‘-r.lllt‘.‘ gene. 449. 449 Concordance. 609 Concurrent synthesis. 273. 273 Conditional mutations. 87. 274. 365. 524 Conditional probability. 52 Congenital stationary night blindness. 58 Conjugation. 139446. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145 Consensus sequences. 319 Consent. issue of. 2 Conservation genetics. 663777. 664 diversity in. 664—66. 665. 666 drift in. 668—69 erosion in. 670. 670 inbreeding in. 668419. 668 population sire in. 666—67 reduction in gene flow in. 669 Conservative replication. 264. 264 Constitutive enzymes. 393 Constitutive mutants. 395 Continuous DNA synthesis. 272 Continuous variation. 49. 600. 600 additive alleles as basis 01". 601. 602 Cooperative binding. 398—99 Copi'n elements. 385. 385 in Dros'ripi'iilu. 385. 335 Copolyiners. mixed. 31%| 1 Copolymers. repeating. 312—13. 312. 313 Core collection. 672 Core enzyme. 273 Corepressor. 401 Core—promoter element. 321. 413 Corey. Robert. 250. 351 Corn See also Maize glyphosate-resistant. 550 herbicide-resistant. 9 Correlation coefficient. 604 Con‘ens. Carl. 2. 49, 215 Cortex. 173 Cosegrcgation. 609 Cosmic rays. 371. 372 Cosmids. 462. 463 Cotransdttction. 153 Cotraosforutation, 147 Cotton. genetically modified. 9 Covariance. 604 CpG islands. 39. 295 emf. 442 Creighton. Harriet. 117—18 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD), 353. 356 Crick. Francis. 5. 232. 244. 245—48, 246, 258. 264. 308. 309. 313. 314. 335. 368 Cri-duuchat syndrome. 189—90. 190. 199 Crisscross pattern of inheritance. 81782 Croce. Carlo. 209 Crohn’s disease. 3213 Crop plants. genetic modification of. 9. 550—5 1 . 552 Crossing over. 23. 32. 34. 101 as basis of determining distance between genes during chromosome mapping. 10447 degree of. 101 within an inversion loop. 205. 205 physical exchange between chromatids in. 117—18. 120 unequal. 503 Crossover gametes. 102 Crossovers. single. 106—7. 106 Crow. James. 365. 367 Up gene. 398:1 Crystallographic analysis. 342 Crystal structure analysis. 01' rcpressor complexes. 399—401. 400 Cncm'bito pepc: (summer squash). 78—79. 79 Culm‘pipir’ns. 22. 627. 628 Civil. 555—56 Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (CAM-Pl. 398 Cyclic AMP receptor protein tCRP). 398a Cyclin D1. 443 Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). 68. 440. 441. 44-2. 540 Index 1-5 Cycliit E. 443. Cyclins. 440. 440. 441. 442 Cystic fibrosis. 10.11. 58. 1'28. 258. 556. 561. 643 l-lardy-Weinberg frequency of. 624 mouse models of. 522 Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). 556K571. 557. 630. 643 Cytochrome. 653 Cytokinesis. 23. 26 Cytology. 101 Cytoplasm. 19—20. 19 Cytoplasmic localization. 577. 580. 581 Cytnsine (C). 5. 241. 242. 247. 369 Cytoskeleton. 19 Cytosol. 19 D D4Z4 repeats. 429 Donia reri'r) (zebralislt). 12. 13. 22 Danna. Kathleen. 458 Darnell. James. 322 Darwin. Charles. 49. 233. 618. 641. 642. 647. 670 Datum. 190. 191 Datum s'rrcrrnonimu. 22 Daughter chromosome. 26 Davidson. Ronald. 177 Davis. Bernard. 140 Dawson. Henry, 235 Daxx cotranscription. 429 BED region. 501. 501 DC C gene. 448 DrDNA. 24849 Dcamination. 363—69. 369 Death programmed cell. 44142. 441. 594 deCODE. 2 Degeneracy and wobble hypothesis. 313—14. 314 Degrees of freedom (dfl. 54 Delbrttck. Max. 138. 362 Deletions. 556 in chromosome mutations. 199—200. 199. 199. 200 intercaiary. 199 segmental. [S9 terminal. 199 Deletion testing 01‘ H! locus. 156457. .157. 158 A508. 4.19. 556. 557 Delta {5) chains. 348 Dclm gene. 59]. 591 DeLucia. Paula. 370 Denaturation. 467 of nucleic acids. 253754 Dense fibrillar compartment (DFC). 508. 508 Density gradient centril'ugation. 253 Deoxyadenosine triphosphate. 243 Deoxyadenylic acid. 242 Deoxynucleoside diphosphate. 243 Deoxynucleoside triphosphate. 243 Deoxyribonuclease. 235 I-6 Index Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Sec DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs). 268 Deoxyribose, 5 2-Deoxyribose, 242 Deoxyribose nucleic acid, 250 Deoxythymidine diphosphate, 243 Depurination, 368—69 DeSilva, Ashanti, 561, 561, 569 Determination, 576 Development, defined, 576 Developmental genetics, 575—98, 576 analysis of developmental mechanisms. 577 basic concepts in, 577 binary switch genes in, 578—79, 578, 579, 579 cell-cell interactions in C. c/egcms development in, 590—94, 591 conservation of developmental mechanisms, 577 cytoplasmic localization in, 577, 580, 581 differentiation control, 588—89, 588 in Drosopliila. 5 79—86, 580, 581 analysis of embryogenesis, 581—83. 582. 583 genetic regulation of anterior-posterior body axis. 580, 581, 581, 585—86 overview of, 579-8 1, 5811 segmentation, 58], 583—84 flower development in Arabidnpsis in, 589—91), 589, 590, 590 model organisms in, 577 programmed cell death in. 594. 594 zygotic genes and segment formation in, 583—84, 583, 584 DeVries, Hugo. 49 Dexter bull, 97 ({fim‘] gene, 532 14/21 D/G translocation, 207 Diabetes stem cell research and, 595 Type 11, 600. 600 Diakinesis, 28, 29 Dicentric bridge, 204 Dicer. 425—26, 425 Dic'o‘ostetirmr discoirlium, 22 Dideoxynucleotides, 474—76, 477 Diet, cancer and, 451 Differentiation, 576 control of, 588—89. 588 Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 559, 559 Digestion, 556 Dihybrid cross. 44—47, 45, 46 Dihybrid ratios, modified. 77, 79 2. 5-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. 343—44 Dinucleotide, 243 Dioecious, 166 Diphosphates, 243 Diplococcus pneumoniue, 18, 233—34. 235 Diploid number (2n), 3. 20, 22. 49 Diploid organisms chromosome in, 20—22, 211, 22, 22 meiosis as critical to sexual reproduction of, 32~33 Diplonema, 28, 29 Directional selection], 621%, 628 Direct terminal repeat [DTR), 385, 385 Discontinuous DNA synthesis, 272 Discontinuous variation, 49, 600 Discordant, 609 Diseases See also Genetic disorders comparative genomics used in identifying genes causing, 500—501, 500, 500 gene expression in humans and, 429 model organisms and, 12—14 reverse genetics to identity, 529 Disiunction, 29 Dispersive replication, 264, 265 Disruptive selection, 628—29, 629 Distal-{err gene family, 588—89. 588 Diur‘ctpltis nm‘ia, 665—66 Dizygotic (DZ) twins, 57, 608. 609 DNA (deoxyrilmnucleic acid), 4—5, 18—1 9 See also MitOchondrial DNA; Recombinant DNA technology A-, 248—49, 24‘) alternative forms of, 248—49, 249 analytical techniques in investigating, 251—57 B-, 248—49, 249 cDNA, 248—49. 469 chloroplast, 219—20, 219 13-, 248—49 distribution of. 239, 239 13—, 248—49 genetic material and, 233—41, 239 as genetic material in eukaryotes, 239—40, 242 mitochondrial, 226—27 molecular analysis oi", 128 P-, 249 phage, 3/7 repetitive, 255—57, 255, 256, 297—98. 297 satellite, 297—98, 298 semiconscrvativc replication in reproducing, 264—614, 264 spacer. 335 structure of, 243—48 supercoiled, 289—91] 2-. 247, 248. 249 (Ina/4 gene, 68 DNA an'rplil'rcations, 438, 438 DnaA protein, 68, 271—72, 27] DNA—binding domains, 354, 418 DNA-binding proteins, 289 DNA blotting procedures, 255 DnaB protein, 271, 271,272 DNA chips, 11,557—58 See also DNA microarrays technology, 10 DNA cloning, 138 DnaC protein, 271, 271,272 DNA databases, 53 1 DNA dotrble~strand break repair (,DSB repair), 381—82 DNA fingerprints, 300, 567—68. 568. 666 in forensics, 258, 479, 568 VA glyct‘rsylascs, 379 NA gyrase. 272 \‘A helicase, 120, 272 \7A helix, 271—72, 271 \JA-histone, 417 \lA—hybridixation studies, 65(] NA lesions, 451 VA libraries, 469—70, 471) \7A ligase, 273, 460, 460, 461 \1A markers, 128 DNA methylation, 89, 378 in regulation ol" gene expression, 422—23, 422, 423 DNA microarrays, 255, 537—38 genetic screening and, 10, 557—61), 558, 559 D\IA molecules restriction enzymes in constructing recombinant, 7, 45‘), 4611 DNA polymerasc(s) DNA replication errors and. 366 eukaryotic. 275—76. 276 DNA polymerase 1, 268—69, 268, 269, 270, 469 DNA polymerase 11, 270—71, 270 DNA polymerase 111, 270—71. 270 DNA polymerase W, 270—71 DNA polymerase V. 270—71 DNA profiles, 14, 568, 665. 666 DNA protein, 271—72 DNA recombination gene conversion as consequences ol', 279—80 specific enzymes in directing, 278—79. 27‘) DNA repair, 362, 377—82, 379, 380, 381 genetic detects al‘l‘ecting, 437—39, 438, 439 DNA replication, 120, 263 coherent model in summarizing, 273—74, 274 complex issues in. 271—72 ends of linear chromosomes as problematic during, 276—78 errors in, 366 gene control ol', 274 proofreading and error in correction of, 273 slippage in, 366—68 spontaneous imitations in, 362 DNA revolution, 258 DNase hypersensitive, 420—21 DNase I, 416 DNA sequences, 566 centromeric, 298—99, 299 in characterizing clones. 474—78, 475, 476 telomeric, 299—300 DNA sequencing automated, 478 genome projects and, 477—78 DNA structure base composition studies, 244—45, 245 knowledge 01" nucleic acid chemistry in understanding. 241—43 UUUUUUUUUU DNA synthesis antiparallel strands in. 372—73. 272 in bacteria. 268—71 biologically active DNA. 26940 eukaryotic. 275—76 initiation of. 272. 272 unscheduled. 380 DNA template. transcription in synthesizing RNA on. 317 DNA topoisomerases. 272 Dobzhansky. Theodosius. 205. 644—45 Dodd. Diane. 649 Dog genome. 500—50 1, 500. 5111 Dog Genome Project. 90 Dogs. improving genetic fate of purebred. 90 Dolly (cloned sheep). 9. 10 Domestication. loss of genetic diversity from. 665—66 Dominance hypothesis. 634 Dominance variance. 607 Dominant. 41—42. 42 Dominant autosomal mutations. 363—64 Dominant epistasis. 77 Dominant lethal altele. 73—74 Dominant mutations. recombination analysis of. 536 Dominant traits. 57—58. 57. 58 Donohue. Jerry. 250 Doolittie. W. Ford. 355 Dosage compensation in Dr'osophilo. 180 in preventing excessive expression of X— linked genes in humans. 175—78 Doubleecrossovers (DCOs). 107. 108, 1119. 110—11.110.113 Double exchange. 1 15716 four-strand. 115 three-strand. 115 two-strand. 1 15 Double fertilization. 168 Double—helical DNA. 231. 246 Double minute chromosomes. 438 Double-stranded breaks t'DSBs). 277 Down. John Langdon. 191 Downstream enhancers. 414ml 5 Down syndrome. 191—93. 192 familial. 193. 2064 Drosophila. 166. 538 alternative splicing and sex determination in. 426—27. 427 autosomal linkage in. 106 Bar—eye mutation in. 201. 202 bit'oid gene. 226 complementation analysis of. 526 cupid elements in. 385. 385 crossing over in. 106. 519 D. bifrtscium, 224 D. hereroneura. 650 D. inelanogast‘er. 22. 35.. 517 Ad}: locus of. 643. 643 genetic drift in. 632 genetic erosion in. 670. 6‘10 Heidelberg screens on. 54143. 542. 543 in Human Genome Project (HGP). 8 as model Organism. 11. 12.13 mutations in. 4 protein variation in. 642 X chromosome of. 4 D. psctrdoobscm'a. 644—45. 645. 646 digestive physiology in. 649 D. silt-esters. 650 D. wiiiisroni. 224 development of. 579—86. 530. 581 analysis 01' embryogenesis. 581—83. 582. 583 anterior-posterior body axis. 580. 581. 581. 585—86 cuticle preparations of embryos, 543 overview of. 579781. 580 segmentation. 581. 583—84 ((6'); gene in. 208-9 distal-Fess (DH) gene in. 588. 588. 589 dosage compensation in. 180 DSCAM gene in. 425. 425 embryonic development in. 225426 extra set combs mutation in. 587. 587 eye color in. 79. 80 eye formation in. 577. 578—79. 578. 579 functional analysis of nervous system using. 13 gene cloning in. 528 gene mapping of. llfkl7. 117 gene redundancy in. 200—201 genetic analysis of embryo genesis in, 581-83, 582. 583 genome. 487 Haplo-IV condition in. 189 homeotic mutation in. 575 Hex genes in. 585—86. 585 infective particles in. 224 interference in. 115 linkage ratio in. 102 middle repetitive multiple—copy genes in. 301 mitotic recombination in. 1 18. 119 as model organism in mutational analysis. 519—21. 519. 520. 521 mosaics. 180—81. 181 Notch phenotype and genotype in. 1994200. 199 Notch signal system in. 591 P element transposons in. 385. 385. SEQ—2:. 520. 528 poiycnmb gene family. 588. 590 ratio of X chromosomes to sets of autosomes in determining sex in. 178—81. 179 telomeres of. 300 three-point mapping in. 108—10. 109 trisorny in. 190 white locus in. 72. 72 Xelinkage in. 81782, 81. 82 Drosopterin. 79. 80 Drugs. anticancer. 281 (151' gene. 427 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMDt. 58. 83. 83. 88. 183. 324. 373 mouse models of. 522 Drinkers. 632 Dunnen. J. T. Den. 373 Index 1-7 Duplications. See Gene duplications DuPrttw. Ernest. 33 Dyad. 27. 28. 29 Dysplasin. 437. 437 Dystrophin. 324. 373. 516 E E, (.‘UH. See Escherichia coli E31: transcription factor. 445 56. 442. 450 E7, 450 Ecological species concept. 647 Ecology. ‘7. E‘s-0R1. 460. 460 Ecosystems. 664 Edgar. Robert. 149 Edible vaccines. t59 transgenic plants and. 554L155. 555 E-DNA. 248—49 Edwards. John 1-1.. 193 Edwards syndrome. 193. 194 Effective population size. 667 Ehler-Danlos syndrome. 11. 58 Electromagnetic spectrum. 371. 37] Electron microscopy. 33—35 visualization in. 306 in visualizing transcription. 326—27. 327 Electrophoresis. 468—69. 469 ol'nucleic acids. 257 two~tlimensional. 506. 507. 507. 508 Elliptocytosis. 126 Elongation, 33940. 341] Embryogenesis. genetic analysis of. 581—83. 582. 583 Embryonic blastocysts. 595 Embryonic development in Drosopt'zr'fn. 225—26 Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines. 595 Embryonic stem (ES) cells. 533—34 Embryo splitting. 9 Endangered species gene pools and. 674 population criterion for. 66€k67 End joining. 381—82 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER). 19 Endopolyploidy. HS Endosymbiont hypothesis. 20 Endosymbiotic theory. 218—19 Energy of activation. 6. 354 cngrttilert’ gene. 584 Enhancement gene therapy. 563 Enhanceosome. 418. 419 Enhancer elements. 321 Enhancer mutations. 527—28 Enhancers. 3'20 in controlling chromatin structure and rate of transcription. 415 downstream. 415. Environment gene expression and phenotype expression and. 85 genetic mechanisms in prokaryotes in responding to conditions in. 393 1-8 Index Environmental agents, 45l Environmental factors, cancer and, 451 Environmental risks of genetically modified plants, 552 Environmental variance, 605 Env protein, 620 Enzymes, 6, 353—54 adaptive, 393 constitutive. 393 core, 273 facultalive, 393 photoreactivation, 379 restriction, 7, 555—56 starch—branching, 384—85 transposase. 382 Epites/ia pigmentation, 224, 224 Ephrussi. Boris. 217, 344 Epicanlhic fold, 19111 Epidermal growth factor (,EGF). 355 Epigenesis. 75 Episome, 151 Epistasis, 75. 9 I . 526—27, 527 Epsilon (e) chains, 348 EPSP synthase, 550, 551 Epstein—Bear virus, 449. 450 Equational division. 27, 28 Equilibrium dialysis. 398 Equtls (Ia/Julius, 22 erd gene, 90 Escherichia cuii, 5, I2, 12, I9, 148, 538 See also Bacteria adaptive mutations in, 362—63 arabinose (are) operon in, 404—5, 405, 420 attenuation as critical process during regulation of tip operon in, 402—3. 402 chromosomes of. 288, 288 cloning in host cells, 463, 464 EcoRl in, 460, 460 enhanced electron micrograph of, 20 F factor in, 140—41, 141 gene map for, 494 gene redundancy in, 200 genes in, 502, 502, 505 gene transcription in, 327 genome of. 8, 492—93. 492 infection by T1 bacteriophage. 138. 362 (ac operon in, 420, 422 lactose metabolism in, 393—98, 394, 395, 396, 396. 397. 399 IuriY gene of, 488, 488 LuriaDelbn’ick Fluctuation, test of, 138, 363 mismatch repair in, 378 mutant genes and replication in, 274 (MC region, 267, 268 poIAI mutant, 270 spontaneous mutation of, 138 strand discrimination in, 378 topoisomerases in, 290 translation in. 338—39, 339 tryptophan (trp) operon in, 401—2, 401 Escherichia roli enterotoxin. B subunit of, 159 Escherichia t'nIi K12, 308 E site, 340 Ethical. Legal. and Social Implications (ELSI) Program of Human Genome Project, 564 Ethical issues emerging from Human Genome Project, 563—64 gene therapy and, 563—64 in genetic screening and diagnosis, 560 genetic testing and, 10 in patenting living organisms. 10 Ethidium bromide, 476 6~Ethyl guanine. 370. 370 Etliylmethane sulfonate (EMS), 370. 370, 37 I , 541 Eubacteria, genomes 01",491—93, 492, 493 Euchromalic regions. 173 Euchrontatin, 296 Eugenics. failure of movement, 659 Eukaryotes DNA organization in, 292—96 genetic information in, 412 initiation of transcription in, 320—2 1 . 32/ regulation of gene expression in, 41 1—33 semiconservative replication in, 266, 266 transcription in, 320—23 translation in. 342—43 Eukaryotic cells, gene transfer in, 465—66, 465 Eukaryotic DNA polymerases, 275—76, 276, 276 Eukaryotic DNA synthesis, 275—76 Eukaryotic genes coding regions of, 323—26, 323, 324, 324 regulation of. 41 1—33, 413 Eukaryolic genomes, 297—301, 297 functional genes and, 301 genes in, 488 of organizational patterns, 493—96, 494. 494, 4.95, 502 organizations of, 297—30 I , 297 Eukaryotic hosts, cloning in, 464—65, 464 Eukaiyotic organisms, 23 Eukaryotic systems, positive interference in, 114—15 Euploidy, 188 Euprymnu sea/apes, 406 Evolution, 2, 6, 233 definition of species, 647 gene duplication in, 201—3 gene pool splitting in, 641—42, 641 enetic structure of populations, 644—47, 645, 646 genetic variation, 642—44, 643, 643, 644 phyletic, 641 reduction in gene llow between populations. 647—53, 648, 649, 650, 651 speciation, 641412 transfortmition in, 641—42, 64] Evolutionary history genetic differences in reconstructing, 653~56, 653. 654, 655 reconstructing, 656—58 Evolutionary trees, estimating, from genetic data, 653—55, 655 Excision repair, 379—80 113" Exclusion map, 566 Exon junctions, 488 Exons. 323 Exon shuffling, 354—55, 354 Exonuclease proofreading. 273 Expression libraries, 530 Expressivity, 85—86, 86 Ex sin: conservation, 671—72, 671 Extension, 467 Extinction, genetic erosion and, 670 Extracellular matrix, 447 Extranuclear inheritance. 214—30 maternal effect in, 224—26, 224, 225 mutations in mitochondrial DNA, 219, 221—22 organelle heredity and. 215—21, 215, 217, 219 symbiotic relationship between host organisms and invaders. 222—24, 222, 223 Extremely rough mutant strain, 236 Eye formation, control of. 577, 578—79, 579 Eyeless phenotype, 85—86 Eyre—Walker, A., 367 F FAr X F7 matings, recombination in, 144—45 F‘ cells, 140,141,142 F’ cells, 140.141. 142 F. generations, 102 F2 generations, 102 Fabry’s disease, 83 Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (,FS H D), 429 Factorial, 53 Factor VIII gene, 530, 530 Facultative enzymes. 393 Familial adenomatous polyposis (PAP), 11. 447, 447. 448 colon cancer and, 448, 448 Familial Down syndrome, 193. 206—7, 207 Familial hypercholesterolemia. ll, 58 Familial melanoma, 447 Farnesoid X-aclivated receptor (’FXR], 501—2 Fawcett, Don, 34 Feathering, hen and cock, 84. 84 Fciis coiyi, 673, 673 Felix (Ioutcxtitits', 22 Female infanticide, 183 Ferments, 344 Fertility factor, 140—41 Fertilization. double, 168 Fetal hemoglobin, 348 F factors, 146—47 F HI T gene, 209 Fibrillar center (FCJ, 508, 508 Fibrillin, 80 Fibrillin gene, mutation in, 80 Fibroin, 351 Fiers, Walter, 315 Filterable agent (FA). [51 Finch, John T., 293 Fingerprinting DNA, 300, 479, 567—68, 568, 666 MtDNA. 667 peptide mass. 506 technique in. 34748 Fink. Gerald. 195 Finnegan. David. 385 Firstedivision segregation. 121. 122 First filial generation (F1). 40 First polar body. 31. 32 Fischer. Emil. 35] Fisher. Ronald A.. 618 Fitch. Walter M.. 653. 655—56 Fitness. 625e27 Flavell. Richard. 323 Floral meristem. 589 Florida Panther, 673. 673. 674 Flower development in Araln'rt‘opsr's. 589. 590. 590 Fluctuation test. 133. 362. 363 Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter {FACS_) machine. 183 Fluorescent in sitrr hybridization (FISH). 255. 255. 566—67. 567 gene mapping in. 566F671 FMR}. 208 Folate-sensitive site. 208 Folded-fiber model. 33. 34 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAQ). 664 Food and Drug Administration. 550. 563. 569 Ford. C. E.. 170 Forensics. DNA fingerprints in. 479 Forkedeline method. 47—49. 48. 48. 74 Formylrnethionine (f—inet). 315. 338. 352 F {or sex) pilus. 14-0 Forward (classical) genetics. 517. 523—29 Founder effect. 667 Four o'clock plants, varicgation in. 215. 215 Fourestrand double exchange. I 15 FRABB fragile region. 209 Fraenkeeronrat. Heinz. 2-10 Fragile sites cancer and. 209 sursceptibility of. to chromosome breakage. 208—9 Fragile-X mental retardation protein [FMRP'J. 208 Fragile—X syndrome. 88. 208—9. 208, 374. 5 74 trinucleotide repeats in. 373774 Franteshift mutations. 308. 308. 364. 364. 370771 Franklin. Rosalind. 244. 245. 250 Fraser. Dean. 239. 250 Fraternal twins. 57. 603 Free ribosome. 19 Frequency distribution. 603. 605 F' state. merozygotes and. 14546. 146 Functional complementation. 528. 530—31 Functional genomics. 485. 488791. 529 of bacterial genome. 489 strategies for functional assignments of on known genes. 489—91 Functional groups. classification of genes into. 490 me'nlns heteroditns. 645416 Fungi. detection of mutations in. 365. 375 Furberg. 5.. 250 Fusion genes, 553 Fusion polypeptide. 552 F U T] gene. 72 F1’-NULL allele. 631—32. 631 G G0. 23—24 Gl/S checkpoint. 440 G2 (gapll. 23 G2/M checkpoint, 440 G4 phage. 316—1 7 Gain—ofefonction mutations. 67. 364 GAL1.420—21.421 GnilO. 420721. 421 Ga14p, 421. 421 GalSOp. 421. 421 Galactosemia. 58, 38 Gall. Joe. 296. 298 Callus donmsticm‘. 22 Galton. Francis. 659 Gametes. 18 consequences of inversions during formation. 203—1. 204. 205 crossover. 102 development of. 27—33. 31 noncrossover. 102 parental. 102 recombinant. 102 Gametic mutations versus somatic mutations. 363—64 Gametophyte stage. 32, 33 Gamma (7) chains. 348—49 Gamma (y) rays. 37]. 372 Gangliosides. 59 Gap genes. 583—84. 583 transcription. 583 Garrod. Archibald. 34344 Gaucher Disease. 11 GAbands. '29fl97. 296 GC B-like DLBCL. 559. 559. 560 GC. box. 414 Gehrig. LOU. 543. 543 Gehring. Walter. 579 Gel electrophoresis. 468. 642—43 Gellert. Martin. 290 Getsinger. Jesse. 562. 569 Genetsl. 18. 42. 49—51 o-globin. 503—5. 503. 504 B-globin. 323, 503—5. 503. 504 binary switch. 578519. 578. 579. 579 ELM. 120 BRCAI. 68. 452 BRC‘ A 2. 452 in breast cancer. 452 CC-CKR-S. 620 C DK . 68 classification of, into functional groups. 488791, 490 comparative genomics to find new. 4997500. 500 conversion of. 123 defined. 2 drtnA. 68 Index 1-9 eukaryotic. 323726. 323. 324, 413. 413 librillin. 1-10 FUTI. 72 heat-shock. 87 honicotic. 585—88 homeotic selector. 589—90. 590. 590 human. diversity in chromosomal organization of. 498, 498. 499 Lori. 395 Lin-Z. 461. 461 for Marla n syndrome, 80 mismatch repair. 438 mutant. 86 for neurotibromatosis. 128. 565—66 orthologous, 502 ovalbutnin. 323—24. 324 redundancy and amplification. 200—201 replication of. 274. 274 repressor. 395 ribosomal RNA trRNAJ. 18. 20(L201. 2'20. 232. 251 segmentation. 582 segment polarity. 584. 584 selection. in reguiatory flower development in Arabidopris, 589—90. 590. 590 selector. 583. 590 split. 320. 323 structural. 394. 394 symbols used to represent. 42 yeast gal. 420—22. 421 zygotic. 582, 583784. 583. 583, 584 Gene amplification, 327 Gene banks, 672 GeneChip, 560 Gene conversion. as consequence of DNA recombination. 279—80, 280 Gene density in eukzu'yotic genomes. 494 Gene duplications in chromosome mutations. 200—203. 200 in evolution. 201—3 genetic diversity and. 503—4. 503 Gene expression. 5%. 6. 532 um operon, 404—5. 405 DNA methylation and regulation of. 422—23. 422. 423 environment and. 85 in eukaryotes. 411—33 basal transcription complex, assembly of. 417—20. 418. 419. 420 chromosome organization in nucleus and. 412—13. 413 DNA methylation and. 422—23. 422. 423 positive induction and catabolite repression in the gal genes of yeast. 420—22. 421 posttranscriptional regulation of. 423—26. 424. 425. 426 posttranslationai mechanisms and. 426—28. 427. 428 prokaryotes vS.. 412 transcription initiation and, 413—15. 414. 415 transcription steps. 415—17. 416. 417 globin. 504—5. 504 of Hat gene. 587—88 l—10 Index Gene expression (cont) human genetic diseases and, 429 lactose metabolism in Escherichia colt, 393—98, 394, 395, 396, 396, 397, 399 multiple effects of, 80—8] posttranscriptional regulation of, 423—226 in prokaryotes, 392—410 quorum sensing in bacteria, 406 regulation of. in eukaryotes, 41 1—33 RNA silencing of, 425—26, 425, 426 Gene expression microarrays, 537—38 Gene families, 202 Gene flow, 669 Gene function. dissecting. See Mutational analysis Gene interaction, 67, 75, 77—79 complementary, 77 in Drosnphilrr eye color. 79, 80 Gene knockout, 208—9, 364, 522, 533, 534 Gene mapping. 550 accuracy of, and distance between genes, 115—16115, 116 of Drosopirr'la genes, 116-17, 117 using annotated computer databases, 128 using molecular analysis of DNA, 128 Gene mutations, 4, 362 See also Mutations Gene pathways, 523 Gene pools endangered species and, 674 populations and, 618 Gene products, 220, 221, 560 Generalized transduction. 152, 152 General recombination, 278 General transcription factors, 32] Gene replacements, 533 Gene sequencing determining, 110—] l, 110 in enhancing understanding of mutations in humans, 372—74 Gene silencing technologies, 536—37 Gene targeting. 522 Gene therapy, 10, 560—63, 561, 569 ethical issues and, 563—64 future of, 562—63, 563 new vectors for, 563, 563 problems and failure in, 562 treating disorders with, 10, 501. 560—63, 562, 563 Genetic analysis See also Mutational analysis classical (forward genetics), 517, 523—29 of embryogenesis, 581—83. 582, 583 of vulva formation, 592—94, 592 Genetic anticipation, 88, 209, 374 Genetic background, 86, 86 Genetic code. 5 basic operational patterns of, 307—9 characteristics exhibited by. 307 commaless and degenerate nature of, 307, 309 confirmation of. in studies of phage M52, 315 dictionary. 313—15, 314 degeneracy and wobble hypothesis, 313—14. 314 initiation, termination, and suppression, 314—15, 315 different initiation points in creating overlapping genes, 3 | 6—17, 316 nonoverlapping nature of, 308—9 RNA polymerase in directing RNA synthesis, 318—20 studies, 309—13 homopolymer, 3 It], 3/0 mixed copolymers, 3 IO—l l, 311 repeating copolymers, 312—13. 312, 313 synthesizing polypeptides in cell-free system, 309-10, 310 triplet binding assay, 311—12. 312, 312 studies providing evidence for existence of messenger RNA (mRNA), 317—18 transcription in synthesizing RNA on DNA template, 317 triplet nature of, 308, 308 universal nature of, 307, 315—16. 316 Genetic contribution, 605—8 Genetic counseling, 10 Genetic data, influence of chance on, 54—56 “Genetic death", 367 Genetic differences in reconstructing evolutionary history, 653—56, 653, 654, 655 Genetic disorders, 258 diagnosis and screening, 555—60, 555, 557, 558, 560 DNA microarrays, 557—60, 558, 559 drug development, 558 ethical dilemmas in, 560 genome scanning, 559—60, 561] prenatal diagnosis of sickle—cell anemia, 555—56. 556 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and, 556—57, 557 gene therapy for, 501, 562. 563 genetic basis of, [1 Hat genes and, 586—87, 587 Genetic diversity, 664—66, 665 conservation of, 670—73 ex sin! conservation, 671—72, 671 gene duplications and, 503—4, 503 genetic erosion and, 670, 670 identifying, 666, 666 loss of. 665—66 population augmentation, 673 in sin! conservation, 672—73 Genetic drift, 632 in conservation genetics, 668—69 random, 367 Genetic effects of inbreeding, 634, 634 Genetic engineering, 258 of plants, l59 Genetic erosion in conservation, 670, 670 genetic diversity and, 670, 670 Genetic events, laws of probability in explaining, 5 l—54 Genetic expression, onset of, 88 Genetic function. cell structure and. 18—20, 19 Genetic information, 232 control of, 2 Genetic load. 668—69 Genetic markers, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) as, 564-65, 564 Genetic material, 18 characteristics exhibited by, 232, 232 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and, 233—41 protein as, 233, 233 ribonucleic acid (RNA) as. in some viruses, 240—4] Genetic privacy, 2 Genetic proof of operon model, 395—96. 396 Genetic recombination, 139 in bacteria conjugation, 139-46. 140, I41, 142, I43, I44. 145 transformation and, 147—48 Genetics See also Developmental genetics; Population genetics; Quantitative genetics; Transmission genetics biotechnology in, 10—11 defined, 3 effect on humankind, 2 history of, 2—5 Mendelian, 20, 39—65 population, 617—39 society and, 2 terminology in, 42—43, 43 transmission, 41] Genetic screening, 519, 523 prenatal, 659 Genetic structure patterns of, 618 of populations, 64447, 645, 646 Genetic suppression, 86—87 Genetic swamping. 673 Genetic testing, It] breast cancer and. 452 ethical dilemmas and, 560 Genetic variation, 620, 635, 642—44, 643, 643 explaining high level of, independent assortment and. 51 sources of, 4 Gene»to-centromcrc mapping, l2l—23, 123 Gene transfer in eukaryotic cells, 465—66, 465 Genic balance theory, 180 Genome projects, use of recombinant DNA technology in. 477—78 Genomes, 8 of archaea, 493 duplications in eukaryote evolution, 503 of eubactcria, 491—93, 493 eukaryotic, 297—301 eukaryotic organizational patterns, 493—96, 494, 494, 495 genomics in studying evolution, 499, 503 organization of eukaryotic. 297—301,. 297 prokaryotic, features of, 491—92, 49/ , 492 of retrovirus, 449 sequencing, 8—9 Genome scanning, 559—60, 560 Genomic analysis, 487—88 annotating, 487—88 compiling, 487 Genomic expression. programming by master switch genes. 578479 Genomic imprinting. 88w89. 89 Genomic libraries. 8. 468. 486 Genomics. 749. 485 See also Mutational analysis Comparative. 485. 499—505. 504 ariaiysis of nuclear receptors and drug development. 501—2. 501 finding new genes using. 4994500. 500 human disease genes identified using, 500. 500 minimum genome for living cells, 502—3 model organisms and. 501P501. 501 multigene families. 503—5. 503. 504. 505 versatility of. 4997503 defined. 3 in enhancing understanding of mutations in humans. 372—74 functional. 488491. 529 of bacterial genome, 489 genome evolution insights in. 499. 503 goals of. 485 in mutational analysis. 529436 cloned gene. 531—33. 531. 532. 533 gene targeting technologies. 533—36. 534. 535. 536 purified protein. 529—30, 530 Genomic stability. 437—39. 438. 439 Genotype. 4. 4'2 Genotype-by—eiwironrnent interaction variance. 606. 606 Genotypic sex determination ('GSD]. 181 Genotypic variance. 605 George 111. King of England. 80 Gea.rpi:af0rtis. 628 Gerald. Park. Z72 Germ-line mutations. 363 Germ-line therapy. 563 Germ-line transformation. 385 Geron Corporation. 181 Cerrir. 198 Giemsa staining. 296 G1 [gap 1 1. 23—24 Gilbert. W'alter. 354—55. 398 Gill. Peter. 226 a—Globin. 6—7 fi-Globin. 6—7 Globin gene family. 503. 504 Glohirt gene superfamily. 503—4. 503 Glucose—tb—phophate dehydrogenase 1661313]. 82. 83. 177 Glucose-galactose malabsorption syndrome. 11 G-lycoproteins. 3. 3 Glyphosate. 5 ‘0. 551 GMZ. 59 Goldberg-Hogness ITA'IZA box). 321 Golden rice. 9. 551. 552 Golgi body. 19 Gonochoric. 166 Gorlin syndrome. 447 Gossypitmt. 196497. 196 G(}..§'.S'}’pftllfl hi'i'sufimt. 22 Goulian. Mehran. 269 Gower 1. 3'48 G—quartets. 208 Gradient centrifugation. 252. 253 Granik. Sam. 166 Grant. Peter. 628 Grant. Rosemary. 628 Granular compartment [6C). 508. 508 Gratuitous inducers. 394. 395 Green Revolution. 61 1 Greider. Caro]. 278 Griffith. Frederick. 233—35 gRNA (guide RNA}. 326 Growth hormone. 258 Gmnberg—Manago. Marianne. 309 Guanine (G). 5. 84. 241. 242.. 247 Guanosine triphosphate tGTP}. 243 Guanosine tripliosphate (GTPl- dependent release factors. 34] Guthrie, George. 239 Guthrie. Woody. 74 G)=mnogyps coir'fbmimms. 665 Gynecomastia. 171 H Hoemanrims. 24 Haemophit'ns influenzne. 9. 502. 502 genes in. 486 genome for. 486 Hairpin loop. 277778. 277 Hairpin secondary structure. 320 Haldane. J. B. S., 126, 618 Half-life. 427 Half-reaction time. 256 Harnerton. John L.. 170 Hamkaio. Barbara. 3226 Haploid number (Hi. 4. ‘22 Haploid organisms. linkage analysis and mapping in. 120426. 121 Haploinsufflciency. 364 Haplo-IV. 189 Ho-ros. 442 Hardy. Godfrey H.. 618 Hardy-Weinberg law, 618—24. 619, 621. 624. 632 applied to human populations. 620—22. 621. 621 calculating allele frequencies using. 622—24. 624 heterozygote frequency. 624. 624 multiple alleles. 622—23. 623 for X-linked traits. 623—24 in calculating heterozygote frequency. 624 demonstration of. 618—20. 619 genetic drift and. 632 inbreeding and. 668 natural selection and. 624429 Harlequin chromosomes. 121}. 120 Harris. Harry. 642 Hartwell. Leland H. 52-1. 526. 527. 53940, 539 Havasupai Native Americans. 622 Hawking. Stephen. 543. 543 Hayes. William. 140. 141 Index |~11 Hnyflick. 281 HbA. 347. 348 HhAz. 348 HbF. 348 HbS. 347 Heat-shock genes. 87 Heat-shock proteins. 353 Hedgehog pathway. 59] Heidelberg screens. 54143. 542. 543 HeLa cells. 50849. 509 Helentiaris. Timothy. 479 Helical revolution. 258 Helicases. 272 Helix-loop-helix (HLH) motif. 584 Helix-turn-helix (HTH). 418. 419. 419 Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). 595 Hemizygous. 8| Hemochromatosis. 11 Hemoglobins. 6. 353. 503—4 5 chain of. 67 migration pattern of. 347. 348 porphyrin component of. 80 quaternary level of structure in. 352 studies of, 6—7 Hemophilia, 10. 11. 58. 83. 83. 183. 376. 376 Hemophilia A. 5311 Henking. H.. 169 Hepatitis B virus (HBV). 328. 449. 450 vaccine for. 554—55 Hepatitis C Virus. 328 Herbicide resistance in transgenic plants. 550. 554 Hereditary nonpoiyposis colorectal cancer {HNPCCL 438. 439 Heredity See also Inheritance chromosome theory of. 4. 49. 82. 106 importance of protein in. 343—44 infectious. E 15 relationships between host organisms and invader. 222—24. 222. 22.3 organelle, 215413.215. 217. 219 particulate units of. 41 Heritability broadesense. 606 as measure of genetic contributions to phenotypic variability. 605MB narrow—sense. 606—7. 608 twin studies of. 608—9 Hermaphrodites. 166. 168—69 Hershey. Alfred. 153. 237w38 Heterochromatic regions. 173 Heterochromatin. 86. 295496. 415 Heteroduplex DNA molecules, 147, 278 Heteroduplexes. 147. 323 Heterogarnetic sex. 169 Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotcin particles (hnRNPs). 320. 322-23 Heterogeneous nuclear RNA [hnRNA l. 320. 323 Heterokaryon. 126. 21mm. 38048] Hetet'omorphic Chromosomes. 166 Heteroplasmy. 221 Heterozygosity. genetic erosion and. 670 I-12 Index Heterozygote, 42, 43 Hardy-Weinberg law in calculating frequency, 624, 624 Heterozygous. 42. 43 Hexosaminidase. 59 Hfr bacteria. chromosome mapping and. 141—44. 143. 144, 145 High copy suppressor, 527. 528 High-energy radiation, as cause of mutations, 369, 371 High-frequency recombination (Hfr). l4l—44. 143. 144. 145 High-tln‘oughput functional genomics techniques in. 507, 537 Hindlll, 471—72, 473 Histocompalibility antigens, 18 Histone acetyltranst‘erases (HATS), 416. 417. 429 Histone code, 417 Historte deacetylases (HDACs). 416. 429 Histones, 6, 33, 289, 292, 292, 294, 353 acetylated, 416 chromatin remodeling and modification 01'. 4|6—l7, 417 Histone tails, 295 HIV, transmission from dentist to his patients, 641. 656—57 See also AIDS HIV-l, 620. 626 Hogness, David. 385 Holley. Robert, 336 Holliday, Robin. 278. 378 Holliday structure. 278. 279 Holmes ribgrass (’HR'). 240 Holoenzyme, 270, 318 Homeobox, 419, 586 Homeodornain, 419. 419, 584, 586 Homeotic genes. 585-88 evolutionary divergence in, 590 Homeotic mutants, 585 Homeotic selector genes. activation of, in regulatory flower development in Arabidopsrlt, 589—90. 590, 5 90 Hominids, 635 Homo er‘ecrrrs, 635 Homogametic sex, 169 Homogentisic acid, 343—44 Homologous chromosomes. 3, 20. 22. 49-5 I. 50 Homologous recombination, 278 Homologous recombinatioual repair, 379. 381—82 Homology Search. 29 Homo nerrndert/ralerrsis. 635, 64 l , 657. 657 relationship to modern humans, 657. 657 Homopolymer codes, 310, 3 l() Homo .rupicnr. 22, 635, 641, 657. 664 Homoscrine Iactones (I-ISLs), 406 Homotetramer, 400 Homozygote, 42, 43 Homozygous. 42. 43 Homozygous recessive individual. 43, 44 Hormones, 353 Horowitz. Norman, 346 Host cells, cloning without, 466-68, 467 Hotchkiss, Rollin. 236 Hot spots, 157 Howard-Flanders. Paul, 380 Howard University. '2 Howelcr, C. 1.. 88 [~on gene clusters, 586 Hm genes. 582, 585—88. 590 control of expression of, 587—88 human genetic disorders and, 586—87, 587 HpaII enzyme. 422. 422 H protein, 289 H substance, 71 HU. 289 Hubby, John, 642 Huebner, Kay. 209 Hughes, Walter. 266 Human DNA identification testing. 568 Human genes, diversity in chromosomal organization 01', 498, 498, 49‘) Human genome chimpanzee genome and, 498—99, 499 gene product capacity of, 506 organization of, 486, 496—99, 497, 498 Human Genome Organization (HUGO), 496 Human Genome Project (HGP). 8—9. 13, 128, 258, 47 | . 477—78. 485, 496-99, 497 Ethical, Legal. and Social Implications (ELSIJ Program of, 564 origins 01,496 unfinished tasks of, 497~98 Human hemoglobins, 348—49, 349 studies of, 6—7. 346—49 Human herpesvirus 8, 450 Human male karyotype, 3 Human mitotic chromosomes, 21 Human papillornavims, 328. 449. 450, 4511, 450 Humans alternative splicing in 51.0 gene of, 423—25, 424 chromosomes of, 11 cloning ol', 509—I0 creation of chromosome maps in. 126—28, 127 deleterious mutations in, 365, 367 detection 01‘ mutations in, 375—76, 376 dosage compensation in preventing excessive expression 01' X-linked genes in. 175—78 eye formation in, 577 genomics and gene sequencing in enhancing understanding of mutations in, 372—74 heritability in. 608—9 maleness in, 170—75 mutations in mitochondrial DNA as cause of disorders, 2 l9. 221—22 partial rnonosomy in, 189—90 relationship of Neanderthals to modern, 657. 657 sex selection in, l83 sexual differentiation in, 173 susceptibility of fragile sites in. to chromosome breakage, 208—9 translocations in, 2116—7, 207, 208 transposable elements in. 386 xeroderma pi grnentosurn and nucleotide excision repair in. 380—8 1 , 381 X—linkage in. 82—84. 83. 83 Human T—cell leukemia virus [HTLV— 1 ), 449, 450, 450 Hunchback mutants. 583—84 Hunt. R. Timothy (Tim), 539. 539 Hunter syndrome, 83 Huntingtin protein. 374 l-luntington disease, 11, 58, 58, 73, 88, I28. 208, 365. 374. 374 trinucleotide repeats in. 373—74 l-lybridixalion, 4t) somatic Cell, 126 Hybrid vigor, 634 Hydrogen bonds, 247 Hypercholesterolemia, 58 familial, 58 I-lyperchronric shill, 253 I-lypostatic. 75 Hypotrichosis, 58 I’lypoxanthine, 84. 369 Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (I-IPRT‘). 82—83. 84 Iceland, development of genetic database of all residents in, 2 lehthyosis. 83 Identical twins. 57. 608 lGF-l gene, 544 Imaginal discs, 581, 582 Immigration Restriction Act of I924, 659 Immortality. telomerase as key to, 281 lmmunol’luoreseence staining, 533, 533 Immunoglobulins, 6, 353 Imprinting, genomic, 88—89. 89 Inactivath vaccines. 554 Inactivation. mechanism of, 176—77. 178 Inbreeding, 90, 633—34 in conservation genetics. 668—69, 668 genetic effects of. 634, 634 Inbreeding coel'licienl, 668. 668 Inbreeding depression, 634. 668—69 Incomplete dominance. 68—69. 69 Independent assortment, 37, 44—46. 46. 48. 50. 74. 122 genetic variation and, 51 linkage and. 124 translocations and. 206 Induced mutations, 362, 369—72 lnducer, 393 Inducible, 393, 420 lnl'ection, 149 Infectious heredity, 215 relationships between host organisms and invader. 222—24, 222, 223 Inl’ective particles in Drosopln'la, 224 Information flow, 232 Ingram. Vernon, 347—48 Inheritance See also Extranuclear inheritance; Heredity hiparenlal, 22 chromosome theory 01‘, 3—4. 49, 82, 106 codominant. 69 crisscross pattern of. 81—82 extranuclear. 21%30 maternal. 215. 216 multiplest'actor. 60] . 602 quantitative. 6111). 601—2. 601. 602 sex-influenced. 84—85 sexrlimited. 84785 uniparental. 216 unique patients of. 75—78. 76. 77 units of. 40 Initiation of transcription. 319—21. 333—39. 339 Initiation complex. 339 Initiator codon. 315 Inosinic acid. 336 Insertion/deletion editing. 326 Insertion sequences. 382. 382 In rim conservation. 672773. 672 In .st'm hybridization. 532. 532 molecular. 298. 298 Insulator elements. 4-16 Insulin. 6. 258. 353 genetically engineered. 550 lnsulinlike growth factorl] (Igf2). 39 Insulin production by bacteria. 552—53. 553 1nteins.506 Interaction suppressor. 527. 528 Interactive variance. 607 Intercalary deletions. 199 Intercalation. 370 [nterchromosomal compartments. 413. 413 Interferences. 114—15 Intergenic recombination. 15344. 153. 154 in bacteria] viruses. 153—54 bacteriophages and. 153—54. 153. 154 Interlocus distance. 101 Internz'ttional Rice Research Institute (IRRI 3. 61 I Interphase. 23724. 23. 24. 439 lnterphase nucleus. functional architecture of. 413. 413 Inlcrpopulation diversity. 665 Interrupted mating technique. 142—13. 143 Intersexes. 166. 179 Interspecific diversity. 66-4—65 Intervening sequences. 323726. 324 Intragenic exchange. 154 lntragenic recombination. 156 complementation by r]! mutations. 155—56 deletion testing of rll locus. 15657. 157. [58 recotnbinational analysis. 156. 157 rll gene map. 157—58 r]! locus of phage T4. 154—55 Intrapopulation diversity. 665 lntraspecific diversity. 664415. 666 Introns. 323. 354-555 in eukaryotic genomes. 494 inversion heterozygotes. 204 Inversion loop. 204 lm-‘ersions in chromosome mutations. 203—5, 203. 204 consequences of. duringY gamete formation. 2113—4. 204. 205 evolutionary advantages 01-. 205 position el't'ects of. 204—5 Inverted terminal repeats (lTRSl. 382. 383 In rin‘o (cell-free) protein-synthesizing system. 309 In rim: fertilization. 659 Ionizing radiation. 372. 387 cancer and. 451 Irish. Vivian. 648 ISIS Pharmaceuticals. 338 Isoaccepting tRNAs. 338 [soagglutinogen 70 Isoforms. 326 Isogametes. 121. 166. 167 Isolation of repressor. 397—98 Isopropyltliiogalaetoside (lPTGJ. 394495. 395 Ivanov. Pavel. 226 J 1acob,Francois. 141—43. 308. 317718. 393. 395. 1101 Jacobs. Patricia. 172 Janssens. F. A.. 104 Jeffreys. Alec. 643 Jews. Tayisachs disease among. 59 K K12 bacteria. 155—56 Kanamycin. resistance to. 147 Karin/1X gene. 533. 534 Kappa chains in Paramecium. 222u2-1. 223 Karo. Mary. 623 Karyokinesis. 23 Karyotypes. 3. 20 of human chromosomes. 187 Kaspar. B.K.. 54-1 Kazazian. I-[aig. 386 Keams—Sayre syndrome (KSS). 222 Keightley. PD. 367 Kelner. Albert. 379 Kennedy disease. 88 Keratin. 6. 353 Kerr. Warwick. 632 Kerry cow. 97 Khorana. Gobind. 312 Killers. 222 Kilobase pairs (kb). =17] Kimura. Motoo. 644 Kinases. 295. 353 Kinetoehore microtubules. 24. 26. 26 Klinefelter syndrome. 171. 172. 176. 188 Klitz. Wiiliam. 626 Klug. Aaron. 293. 337 km‘rps mutants. 583 Knockout mice. 209. 522—23. 535 Knockout mutations. 36-4 Knockouts. gene. 533. 534 Knowlton. Nancy. 649 Kohne. David. 255. 256. 298 Kornberg. Arthur. 268—69. 370 Kornberg. Roger. 293. 321 Kozak. Marilyn. 343 Index 1-13 Kreilinan. Martin, 643 Krings. Matthias. 657 Krt'ippcl' gene. 419 Krt'i'ppet mutants. 583. 583 Kara, 356 L Lac! gene. 395 For: opcron. 365. 394 catahotite—activating protein (CAP) in exerting positive control over. 399 Lactate dehydi‘ogenase-B (LDH—B). 646 Lactose intolerance. 88 Lactasc. 88 Lactose metabolism in Esci'ieri't‘iir'u t'uh’. 393—98. 394. 395. 396. 396. 397. 399 Lactose operon. 394 LacZ gene. 461. 461 Lagging DNA strand. 272. 272. 273 Lag phase. 138. I39 Lambda phage. 12. 461762. 462 Lamphrush Chromosomes. 287. 291—92. 291 Landsteiner. Karl. 69. 7O LdIi-B alleles. 646 Leader sequence. 402. 402 Leading DNA strand. 272. 272. 273 Leber's Congenital Amaurosis (LCA). 9U Leber‘s hereditary optic nettropathy (Ll-ION). 222 Leder. Philip. 311. 323 Lederberg. Esther. I40 Lederberg. Joshua. 139. 140. 151. 393. 394 Lederberg—Zinder experiment. 15 | . 151 Leleune. Jerome. 189 Leptonema. 28. 29 LeschiNyhan syndrome. 58. 82783. 83. 84. 811 Lethal alleles. 72774. 73 Lethal initiations. 365 Leucine zipper. 4’20. 420 Levan. Albeit. I70 Levene. Phoebus A.. 233. 243 Levin. Philip. 69 Lewis. Edward 13.. 226. 582—83 Lewis. Mitchell. 399 Lewontin. Richard. 642 L’Heriticr. Philip. 224 Libraries chroinosomeispccilic. 468%)9. 469 genomic. 3. 468. 486 recovering cloned sequences from library. 470—71 screening. for specific clones. 471. 47?. Life cycles. sexual differentiation and. 166—69 LiiFraumeni syndrome. 447 Ligand-binding domain ILBD'). 501. 501 Linnmm coiling. 224—25. 225 Limonimn cat'crm'h'r‘sii. 666 Lincoln. Abraham. 811 Liodegren. Car]. 279 Lincages. transformation and divergence of, in evolutionary history. 641. 641 Linear chromosomes. ends of. during replication. 276—78, 277 1-14 Index Linkage. iOl mapping and. 124—26. 124. 124 Mendel and. 128—29 Linkage analysis mapping in haploid organisms and. 120—26. 121 using restriction fragment length poiymorphisms (RFLPs). 565. 565. 566 Linkage group. 102—3 Linkage ratio. 102—3 Linked genes. transformation and. 147—48 Linker DNA. 293 Linking number. 289 Lipid metabolism. 501 Liu. Rong. 620 Livestock. genetically modified. 9 Locus t_pl. loci]. 22. 51 Lodging. 611 Lod score analysis. 1211—28. 127 Log phase. 138. 139 Long interspersed elements (LINES). 300—301. 386 Loss-oilfunction mutations. 67. 364 Low density lipoproteins {LDLL 58 Low density lipoproteins (LDL) receptor protein. 35-4—55 Lu. Ponzy. 399 Lung cancer. 435 Luria. Salvador. 138. 153. 362 Luria—Dclbriick Fluctuation test. 133. 362, 363 Lux operon. 406 L‘wol‘i‘. Andre. 393 Lycopeizn't‘on escrrlenmm. 22 Lyguenx or XX/XY type. 169770. 179 Lygtit'rrs' forfeits. 169 Lymphoma. 559 Lyon. Mary, 176—77 Lyon hypothesis. 176—77 Lyonization. 177 Lysogenic. 151 Lysogeny. {51151 Lysosomes. 19. 59 Lysozyme. 239 Lytic cycle. 237 M Married mttt'arm. 22 McCarty. Maclyn. 4. 233. 235—36 McClintock. Barbara, I 17—18. 382. 383. 384 McClung. Clarance. 169 McCotieh. Susan. 61 | MacLeod. Colin. 4. 233. 235736 Mad cow disease. 353. 356 MADS-box proteins, 590. 648 Maize Ac—Ds system in. 383—84. 383. 385 crossing over in. 117—13. “8 mapping problem in. 1] 144. 112. 113 opaque 2 mutant in. 375 yields of, 550 Major grooms. 246 Male development, Y chromosome and. 173275, 174 Maleuess. Y chromosome in determining. 171F751. I71 Male—specific region of the Y (MSY). 173. 174. I74 Malignant tumors. 436. 437 Mammalian cell hosts. 466. 466 Mapping in bacterial viruses. 153—54 chromosome. 101L136. 105. 1-4144. 143. 144. 145 gene.115—16.115.llfi.117 gene-to-centrortiere, 121A23. 123 linkage and. 124726, 124, 124 of qualitative trait loci, 609—10. 6w restriction. 471—73. 472. 473 Sturtevant and. 104—6. 105 transduction and. 153 transformation and. 14748 using molecular analysis of DNA. 128 Mapping functions. 1 16 Mapping problem in maize. 1 l l—l-‘l. 112. 113 Mapping studies. 385 Marfan Syndrome. 58. 80 Margoliasli. E.. 653 Margulis, Lynn. 218 Markow. Therese. 622 Marshlield Clinic. 2 Martin—Bell syndrome, 208—9. 203 Master regulatory genes, 578779 Maternal age. birth defects and Down syndrome. 192. [92 Edwards syndrome births and. 193 Maternal—cited genes, 224-26. 224. 225. 582 Maternal inheritance. 215. 216 Maternal parent. 51') Mating types. 166. 167 Matrixrassisted laser desorption and ionization [MALD1), 506—7 Matthaei. J. Heinrich. 309—10 Maximum—likelihood methods. 655 M checkpoint, 440. 440 iifDMl' gene. 442 Mdth protein. 444 MDPK. 374 Mean, 603. 603 standtu‘d error of. 604 Measured values. 54- Medicine. biotechnology in. 10vl ] Medulla. 173 Megasporttngium. 33 Megaspore. 33 Meiosis. 341. 18. 27. 166. 232 anaphase l. 29. 30 chromosome number and. 27730 as critical to successful sexual reproduction of all diploid organisms. 3273 3. 33 diakinesis, 29 diplonema. 29 leptonema. 29 major events in. 30 metaphase l. 29. 30 overview of. 28 paehynema. 29 prophase l. 27. 28729. 28 second meiotic division. 29730 telophase I. 29. 30 zygonema. 29 Mciotic chromosomes. electron microscopy in investigating. 33735 Melanoma. 11 familial, 4417 Melaitoplus {liferenriufiig 22 Melting profile. 253 Melting temperature. 253—54 Mendel. Gregor Johann. 2—‘1. 40—46. 129. 362, 384. 618 analytical approach ol". 42413 garden of. 3 linkage and. 128429 9231321 dihybrid ratio. 46 postulates of. 4142. 44—16 rediscovery of work. 49 Mendelian genetics. 20. 39—99 alleies in altering phenotypes. 67‘ chi-square analysis. 54—56. 55. 55 codominance. 69 combinations of two gene pairs. 74. 74 correlation of postulates with behavior of chromosomes. 49:51 dihybrid cross. 44—4146 foundation of modern transmission. 49—5 1 gene interaction. 7'5. 77779 ineompiete or partial dominance. 68—69. 69 independent assortment and genetic variation, 51 laws of probability. 5 l—54 lethal alleles, 72—74 model experimental approach in. 40. 41 monohybrid cross. 40—44. 43 multiple alleles. 7372 multiple effects of single gene expression. 80-81 pedigrees, 56w59. 5'7. 58 phenotypic expression. 85—89 rediscovery in early 2(}th century. 49 sex-influenced inheritance. 84—85 sex-limited inheritance. SLSS symbols used for alleles. 68 trihybrid cross. 47—49 two—factor cross. 44—47 leinkage, 81784 Mental retardation. X—linked. 429 Meristic traits. 600 Merozygotes. 396 13' state and. 14546, 145 Meselson, Matthew. 265—66. 317—18 MeselsoneStahi experiment. 265766. 265. 266 Messenger RNA [mRNAL 5. 19, 232. 249—51. 307. 307. 308 alternative splicing pathways for. 423 eukaryote vs. prokaryote. 412 monocistronic. 321) polyeistronie. 320 stability control. 427-28 studies with bacteria and phages in providing evidence for the existence of. 317—18 translation of, 335—37 Metabolic pathway. 343—44. 343 Metabolism. 6 Metacentric chromosome, 20. 21 Metafcmale. 179 Metalloproteinases. 447 Metals. polypeptide chains complexed with, 353 Metamales. 179 Metaphase. 23. 24, 26, 26 Mctaphase chromosomes. 34 Metaphase l. 29. 30 Metaphase ll. 30, 30 Metapopulation. 669 Metastasis, genetic control of. 447 Mctastasize. 436 Mellzanoz‘occrusjrtunaschii. genome of, 493. 493 Methionine. 316 Methylation. 295 5-Methyl cytosine, 295 Methyl groups. 89 7-Methylguanosine [71110) cap, 322—23 Methyltransferases, 89, 295 Mice. trtmsgenic. 174 Microarrays. 255, 537—38 MicroRNAs (miRNAs). 426 Microsatellites, 128. 300. 567—68, 568 Microsporangium. 33 Microspore. 33 Microtubules, 19. 24. 26 Middle lamella, 26 Middle repetitive multiple copy genes. 301 Middle repetitive sequences, 300 Miescher. Friedrich. 233 Migration in population genetics. 630—32, 631 Miller. Oscar. Jr., 326 Minimal culture medium. 375 Minimal medium. 138 Minimal mutational distance. 653 Minisatellites, 128. 300, 567—68, 568 Minor grooves, 246 iViltlIL, Beatrice, 240 Minn/us ccll'clinulis, 650, 651 Mirabilisjalapa. 215. 215 Mismatch repair, 377—78 Mismatch repair genes (MMR). 438 Missense mutation. 364 Mitchell, Hershel K.. 216 Mitchell. Mary B.. 216, 279—80 Mitochondria, 18, 19, 19 origin of, 657—58, 658 Mitochondrial DNA. 226—27, 315—16 in explaining organelle heredity, 218—21, 219 molecular organization and gene products of. 220. 221 mutations in. 219, 221—22 Neanderthal. 635 Mitochondrial mutations. case of [inky in Neumspm'u. 2 1 6—1 7, 217 Mitosis. 3—4. 18. 23~27. 27 anaphase. 26 interphase and cell cycle, 23—24 inetaphase. 23. 24, 26 prometaphase. 17. 24, ‘26. 27 prophase, 23, 25 telophase, 23, 24, 25, 26—27 Mitotic chromosomes banding in difirereutiating regions along, 296—97 electron microscopy in investigating, 33—35 recombinations between, 1 18. 119, 120 Mitotic recombination, 533 Mixed copolymers. 310—1 1, 311 Mixed infection experiments, 154 MLHI, 13. 438 MLH3, 438 MN antigens, 18 MN blood group, 69 Mobile controlling elements. 383 Mobile genetic elements and wrinkled peas, 384-85. 385 Model organisms, 11—14, 166, 516—48 comparative genomics and, 500—50 1 . 501 in developmental genetics, 577 first generation of, 11—12 human diseases and, 12—14 modern set of, 12 in mttlational analysis. 517—23. 530—31 [)mmp/iilu. 519—2]. 519, 520, 52] features of, 517 mouse. 521—22. 522 yeast, 517—19. 518 Modified dihybrid ratios. 77. 79 Modular organization of promoters, 414 Molecular biology, 2 Molecular change. mutations classified on basis of, 364 Molecular chaperoncs, 353 Molecular clocks. 655—56, 656 Molecular disease. 348 Molecular genetics, central dogma of. 6, 232. 232 Molecular genetic tools, 529 Molecular hybridization. 254—55. 254 studies. 335 Molecular motors. 26 Molecular organization of mitochondrial DNA. 220, 221 of promoters. 413—15 Molecular phylogeneties, 503 Molecular weight. 253 Molecule structure. relationship of protein function to, 353—54, 354 Moloney murine leukemia virus. 561, 561 Monad, 27, 28, 3O Monocistronic mRNA, 320 Monod. Jacques. 308, 393. 395. 401 Monoecious, 166 Monohybrid cross. 40—44, 43, 68 Monosome. 335 Monosomy, 188. 189—90 partial. 189—90, 190 Mono/.ygotic (MZ’) twins. 57. 608. 609 Moore, Keith. 176 Morgan, Thomas 1-1unt.49, 72, 81—82, 104, 20], 565, 659 Morphological trail, 364 Morton. Newton, 126 Mosaics, 171 Moses. Montrose. 34 Index I-15 Motifs, 418—20 Mouse. See Mus IIINA'CIl/HS mRNA-tRNA-aaz-aa. complex, 340 MSH2, 438 MSH6, 438 Mspl enzyme. 422. 422 Mslll, 555—56, 556 mtDNA, 315—16 MtDNA fingerprinting. 667 Muller, Hermann .l., 180. 201. 362. 372. 524. 659 Miiller—Hill, Benno, 398 Mullis, Kary, 466 Multifactorial traits. 600 Multigene families, 503—5 Multiple alleles, 70—72, 70 Multiple crossovers. analysis of, 107—14 Multiple endocrine neoplasia, 11. 447 Multiple exchanges. 107—8. 107 effect of interference in recovery of, 1 14—15 Multiple-factor hypothesis, 601 Multiple-factor inheritance, 601, 602 Multiple—gene hypothesis, 601—2 Multiple replication origins, 275, 275 Multiregional hypothesis. 635 .il/Itmiulus lewixii, 650. 651 Murat domestic-u. 22 Muscular dystrophy. 10, 11. 82—83. 6’3, 373 Becker, 373 Duchenne, 83, 83. 88, 183, 324, 373 Mus museums. 8. l l, 12, 22, 517 coat color in, 76—77 eye of, 533 gene cloning in. 528 knockout. 522—23, 535 as model organism in mutational analysis, 521—22, 522 in Sfltl hybridization of embryos, 532 transgenic, 521—22. 522 Mustard gases, 370, 37] Music/u nigripex, 671—72. 671 Mtttagenesis, 239—40, 240 saturated, 523 site-directed. 534—36 Mutagenicity of compounds. 377 Mutagens, 369—70 Mutant alleles. 67 Mutant genes. 86 Mutants, Naitmspora. 346, 346 Mutational analysis, 516—48 of biochemical functions, 528—29 case studies of. 538—44 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 543—44, 543 cell cycle genes in yeast, 539—40. 539, 540 Heidelberg screens. 541-43, 542, 543 defining the genes for, 525—26, 526, 527 dissecting genetic networks, 526—27 gene expression microarrays in, 537—38 genome-wide tnapping of protein-DNA binding sites, 538. 538 genomics and reverse genetics in. 529—36 cloned gene, 531—33. 531, 532. 533 l-16 Index Mutational analysis (cont. ) gene targeting technologies. 533—36, 534. 535, 536 purified protein, 529—30, 530 high-throughput functional genomics techniques in, 537 model organisms in. 517—23. 530—31 Drosophii'u, 519r21, 519. 520. 521 features of, 517 mouse, 521422, 522 yeast, 517w] 9, 518 mutants for, 523 generation of. 523 screening for, 523. 524. 525 selecting for, 525 RNAi technologies in, 536737, 537 of suppressors and enhancers. 527—28. 528 Mutations, 232 adaptive, in bacteria. 362763 Bar-eye, in Dmsophiln, 201. 202 base-substitution, 367 behavioral. 365 cancer development and. 436737 causes, or induction of. 369 alkylating agents, 370. 370. 37] apurinic sites, 368—69, 363 base analogs, 370, 371 tautorneric shifts. 368, 369 ultraviolet radiation and thymine dimers. 371—72, 371. 372 chromosome. 4, 1874213 deletions, 199—200. 199, 199, 200 duplications, 200403. 200 inversions in. 203—5. 203, 204 monosorny, 189—90 nondisjunction, 188, 189 polyploidy, 194—98. 195 specific terminology. 188, 188 transiocations. 198419. 198. 20677, 206 trisomy, 188, 190—94, 192 classification of, 362765 colon cancer as result of, 448. 448 conditional, 87, 274. 365. 524 counteracting of. with repair systems. 377—82, 379, 380.381 deleterious. in humans. 365, 367 detection in bacteria and fungi, 365. 375 in humans. 375—76, 375, 376 in plants, 375 dominant, recombination analysis of. 526 dominant autosomal, 363 enhancer, 527—28 frameshift, 308, 308. 364. 364. 370471 gain»of»fu.nction, 67, 364 gametic versus somatic. 363—64 gene, 4. 362 genomics and gene sequencing in enhancing understanding of, 372—74 in hemoglobin. (k7 high-energy radiation as cause of, 369. 371 induced. 362—63. 369772 lethal. 365 location of, 363—64 loss-of-function, 67. 364 Luna—Delbriick Fluctuation Test, 362. 363 missense. 364 mitochondrial. 216—17, 217 in mitochondrial DNA. 219. 221—22 in natural selection. 630 neutral, 365. 367 new alleles in gene pool created by. 629—30 nonsense, 315. 364 null, 364. 523 nutritional. 87. 365 in pair—rule genes, 584 point, 364. 364, 447 in population genetics, 629730. 630 prenatal genotyping for, in fi—glohin gene, 555—56, 557 rates of. 365 recessive autosomal, 363 recessive lethal, 524, 525 regulatory. 365. 39495 r1]. complementation by, 155—56. 156 silent. 364L somatic, 363 as source of new alleles. 67 spontaneous, 138, 362—63, 363 of bacteria, 138—39, 139 rate of. 365—66, 366 from replication errors and base modifications. 366—69 suppressive. 217 suppressor. 315, 525, 527—28, 528 16111pCl'Elitll'CeSCI‘lSltiVC, 274, 365 transposable genetic elements, 382—86, 383, 385 X-linked lethal. 372, 372 X-linked receSsive, 363—64, 376, 376 Mutation-selection balance hypothesis, 630 Mutator phenotype, 437 mmL gene, 13 M yt'oplasma capricolum, 3.16, 316 M )‘c'opinsmo genii‘rrfium genes in. 502. 502 genome for. 492. 502 proteome of. 507 Mrc'oplcmna pneumoniae genome for, 502 Myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fiber disease {MERRF}, 221722 Myoglobin, 352. 353, 503, 503 Myosin, 6. 353 Myotonic dystrophy (DM). 11, 88. 374. 374 trinucleotide repeats in, 373774 N Narrow—sense heritability, 606—7. 608 Nathans. Daniel. 458 National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation. 672 Naturally rare species, 666 Natural selection, 624429, 628. 642 fitness and. 625—27, 625. 626 genetic drift, 632 genetic variation and, 644 migrations. 630—32, 631 mutations in. 630 nonrandom mating. 632—34. 633. 634 in populations. 627728. 627 quantitative traits and, 628—29. 628. 629 “Nature versus nurture" questions. 85 Neanderthals. 635. 641, 657, 657 relationship to modern humans. 657. 657 Neel. James. 347. 634 Negative assortive uniting. 633 Negative control, 393. 404—5 operon model in. 395, 396 Negative interference, 1 14—15 Negatively charged R group. 350, 350 Non-Darwinism. 642 Net)»Mcnde1ian genetics. 67 Neritieliti rnn'r’tuis. 35 Nerve growth factors. ALS and, 544 Nervous system. functional analysis of. using Dmsophilu. l3 Neurobiastomu. 438 Neurotibromatosis (NFl ). 11.58.44? gene for. 128. 565e66 Type I. 447. 565—66. 566 Neurolibrontin, 566 .I eurmpom. 87 gene conversion in. 279—80 linkage analysis and mapping of. 121. 122. 123 mutants. 346, 346 one-gene:one enzyme hypothesis of. 344—46. 345 poky in, 216—17. 217 N. crust-in, [2, 12. 22 nutritional mutations in. 375 sexual reproduction in, 122 Neutral mutations. 365. 367 Neutral petites, 217 Neutral theory. 644 Newly rare species. 666 Nicholas 11. 226 Nit'utirmtt tubat'um. 22. 652, 653 Nilsson-Ehlc. Herman. 60$ 9mers. 271 Nirenberg. Marshall, 309710. 311 Nitrogcnous base. 5. 241 Nitrosoguanidinc. 539 No crossing over ['NCOl. 113 Noller, Harry. 342 Nonaddit‘ive allele. 601 Noncrossover F2 phenotype. 108, 109 Noncrossover gametes, 102 Nondisjunction, 29, 32, 188, 189 Nonliistoncs. 292 Noanodgkin’s lymphoma, 559 Nonlion'iologous recombinational repair, 381782 Nonovcrlapping. 307 Nonparcntal ditypes [NP], [24426 Nonpolar (hydrophobic) R group. 350, 350 Nonrandom mating. 63264. 633. 634 Nonrecrnnbining region of the Y (NRY). 173 Nonsense codons. 309, 341 Nonsense mutation. 315. 364 Normal distribution. 603 Northern blots, 257. 474, 532. 532 Nortlttvestern University. 2 Notch Signaling Pathway. 591. 591 Nthri‘ithr/ialmim‘ t'ir'idext‘cns. 327 Novel phenotypes. 78—79. 78 Nitertninus amino acids. 352 Nuclear-coded gene products. 320 Nuclear envelope. 19 Nuclear pore. 19 Nuclear pore complex. architecture of. 508 Nuclear receptors (Nils). 501—2. 501 Nuclear transfer. 509—11) Nucleic acids blotting. 473—74. 475 building blocks of. 241412.243 denaturation of. 253—54. 2-53 electrophoresis of. 257 knowledge of. as essential to understanding DNA structure, 24143 molecular structure of. 250 renaturation of. 253754 structure of. 5 Nuclein. 333 Nucleoid. 288 Nucleoid region. 19. 20. 20 Nucieolus. 18. 19. 508—9. 508. 509 Nucleolus organizer region (NOR). 18. 201 Nucleoside diphosphates (NDPS). 243. 243 Nuclcoside monophosphate {NMPL 243. 318 Nucleosides. 241. 242 Nucleoside triphosphales. 243. 243. 318 Nucleos‘ome core. 293. 295 high resolution studies of. 294—95 Nucleotide excision repair [NER). 379781. 380 Nucleotides. 5. 241. 242. 243. 318 Nucleotide sequence of gene and amino acid sequence of corresponding protein exhibit colinearity. 3-19. 351 variations in. (14344. 644 Nucleus. 18—19. 19 Null allele. 67 Null hypothesis. 54 Null mutations. 364. 523 Nurse. Paul. 530. 539. 539 N'Lisslein-Volhard. Christiane. 226. 526. 541—43. 541. 582 Nutritional effects. 87788 Nutritional mutations. 87. 365 Nutritional variations. 365 Nynq'almni tn'im. 22 0 Ochoa. Severo. 309 Ocnotlicm biennis. 23 Ohno. Susurno. 176. 201—2 Okazaki. Reiji. 273 Okamki. Tuneko. 273 Okazaki fragments. 27.3 Oligonucleotides. 243 Oligopeptides. 406 Olins. Ada. 293 Olins. Donald. 293 O’Mallcy. Bert. 323—24 Ommatidia. 79 Oncogenes. 437. 443 viral. 449—50. 450 Om: strain. 10 One-gene:one—enzyme hypothesis. 344—46. 375 One-generone—polypeptide chain. 347 One—gcnczone-protein. 346 On the Origin of'Specfes (Darwin). 641. 670 Oogenesis. 31. 32 development 01‘. 31732. 31 Down syndrome and. 192 Oogonium. 32 Ootid. 31. 3.2 Open reading frames (ORFS). 178. 384. 487788. 488 Operator region. 395 Operon model. 395 crystal structure analysis of repressor complexes in confirming. 399—401. 400 genetic proofot‘. 395—96. 396 negative control. 395. 396 OptiGcn company. 90 Orange sand. 84 Ordered tetrad analysis. 121. 123 Organclle heredity. 215718. 215. 217 knowledge 01‘ mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA in explaining. 218—21. 219 Organelles. 19—20 OriC. 271 Origin recognition complex (ORC). 275 Ornithine. 346 Ornithine transcarbamylasc (OTC) gene. 569 Orthologs. 502 Driver? .vtm'ra. 190 Outbreeding depression. 673 Out—of—Africa hypothesis. 635 Ovalbumin gene. 324 Ovchinniitov. Igor. 657 Overdominance. 634 Overlapping genes. 316—17. 316 Ovum. 31. 3'2 Oxidative damage. 369 P p53 gene. 442. 448 P'zi'abo. Svante. 657 Pace. Norman R. 240 Pachyneina. 28. 29 Page. David. 174 Painter. Theophilus. 170 Pair—rule genes. 584, 584 Palindromes. 459 Palmer. Jeffrey. 355 Palo vcrde tree {Ceit'i'dinmfloridum). 479 Pan troglodytes. 22 Paracentric inversion. 203., 203. 204, 205 Paralogs. 503 Paramecin. 222 Pcti‘mnrt'iitm. 3 l 6 Kappa in. 222424. 2.23 Parasexual cycle. 1 IS Paraspcckles. 508. 509 Pardue. Mary Lou. 296. 298 Index 1-17 Parental ditypes. 124—26 Parental gametes. 102 Parental generation (Pl). 40 Parental (genomic) imprinting, 88—89 Parkinson disease. stem cell research and. 595 P arm, 20 Parra. Esteban. 631 Parsimony methods. 655 Partial monosomy. 189—90, 190 Particulate units of heredity. 41. 43 Pascal’s triangle. 53, 53 Patau. Klaus. 193 Patau syndrome. 193. 193 Patent rights on transgenic organisms, 10 Paternal parent. 51 Pattern baldness. 85, 85 Pauling. Linus. 244. 245. 250, 347. 351 P—DNA. 249 Pea plants. 2—3 Pedig'ee analysis. 57—59. 57 in detecting X-linked recessive mutations. 376. 376 Pedigrees. 5669. 57, 58 conventions for. 56—57. 57 P element transposons. 385. 385, 520—21 . 520. 528 Penetrance. 85786. 86 Penny, Graeme. 178 Penrose. Sheldon. 628 Pcntaploiri. 194 Pentosc sugar. 241 Peptide bond. 351. 351 Peptide mass fingerprints. 506 Peptidoglycan. 18 Peptidyl. 339 Peptidyl transferase. 340 Perieentric inversion, 203. 205 Permease. 394 Permissive conditions. 87. 524 Pesticides. 627. 627 Petites in Sacchctmmyces. 217 Phage, 236 See also Bactel'iophages Phage DNA. 3!? Phage MSZ, confirmation of genetic code in studies of. 315 Phage-resistant bacteria. spontaneous mutations as source of. 363. 363 Phage T4 intragenic recombination in. 154—58 rII locus of, 154—55 structure and life cycle. 14849. 149 Pharmaceutical products. 552—55 insulin production in bacteria. 552, 553. 555 transgenic animal hosts and, 553454. 554 transgenic plants and edible vaccines. 554—55. 554. 555 Phaseolus vulgaris, 666 Phenotypes. 4. 6—7. 42 alleles in altering. 67 Bombay. 71—72. 72. 75 mutator. 437 novel. 73—79. 78 reciprocal classes of. 108 l—18 Index Phenotypic effects. mutations classified on basis of. 364—65 Phenotypic expression, 85—89 Phenotypic variance. 605—8 Phenotypic variation. 617, 666 HC-phenylalanine, 310, 310 Phenylalanine, 343, 343 Phenylalanine hydroxylase. 344 Phenylketonuria, 10, 11, 58, 88, 344 Phenylthiocarbamidc lasting, 58 Philadelphia chromosome, 438, 438 qbX | 74 bacteriophage, 239, 269—71), 287, 288, 316 Phosphate group, 241 Phosphodiester bond, 243, 244 Phosphorylation. 295 Photoreactivation enzyme (PR E), 379 Photoreactivation repair, 379, 379 Photosynthesis. l9 Phyletic evolution, 641, 641 Phylogenetic analysis, 503 Phylogeny. 641. 641 species concepts based on, 647 P/I)‘S(ll‘tll)1 pnlycep/mltmt. 326 Physical map of genome. 128 Physiology, 2 Picoides bored/is, 669, 669 Pieau, Claude. 182 Pigmentation, Ep/iestt'a, 224, 224 Pingelap atoll. 632 Pistil, 167 Piston satiumn, 22, 40—41, 41 Pitx2 protein, 533 Plague, 626 Plant cell hosts, 465—66, 465 Plants alternation of generations in, 33 amphidiploidy in, [96—97, 197 detection of mutations in, 375, 375 genetic engineering of, 9, 159 genomes of higher. 495—96 monosomic, 189 polyploid. 195 transgenic edible vaccines and. 554—55. 555 herbicide resistance and, 550, 554 trisomic, 190 Plaque, 149, 153 Plaque assay, 149 Plaque hybridization, 471 Plasma membrane. 18, 19 Plasmid library, 47 | Plasmids, 141, 146—47. 146, 460—61. 461, 463 Pleiotropy, 80 Pluripotent stem cells, 595 Point mutations, 364, 364, 447 Poisson distribution, 1 15—16, 116 PUk)‘ in Neurospora, 216—17. 217 Polar (hydrophilic) R group, 350, 350 Polar microtubules, 24 Pollinalion, 168 Polyacrylamide gels, 257 Poly-A sequences, 323 Polycistronic mRNA, 320 Polycystic kidney disease, I I Polygenes, calculating number of, 602—3 Polygenic control, 599 Polygenic inheritance, 600 Polylinker, 461 Polymerase chain reaction [PCR), 666 applications of, 468 limitations of, 467—68 Polymerase switching, 276 Polynuclcotide phosphorylase, 309, 3/0 Polynucleotides, 243, 244 Polyoma virus, 287 Polyp, 448, 448 Polypeptides, 351 proteins vs., 349 synthesizing, in cell—free system, 309-11) Polyploidy, 188, 194—98, 195 speciation and, 651—52 Polyribosomes, 341, 341 Polysomes, 341 Polytene, 2()() Polytene chromosomes, 200, 200, 287, 290—91, 290, 291 Poly U, 315 Pompc disease, 554 Pontecorvo, George. 1 18 Popular sire effect, 91) Population augmentation, 673 Population bottleneck, 667, 670, 670 Population fragmentation, 665 Population genetics, 617—39 calculating allele frequencies in. 618—20, 619, 6I9, 620, 62] consequences of, 620 gene pools and, 618 Hardy-Weinberg law, 618—24, 619, 621, 624, 632 applied to human populations, 620—22, 621, 62] in calculating allele frequencies, 622—24. 624 demonstration of, 618—20, 619 genetic drift and, 632 inbreeding and, 668 natural selection and, 624—29 natural selection in, 624—29, 625, 626, 627, 628 origins of man and, 635 testing for equilibrium in. 622 Populations explaining high level of genetic variation in, 644 gene pools and, 618 genetic structure of, 644—47, 645, 646 size of effective vs. absolute, 667 species survival and, 666—67 Porphyria (some forms), 58 Porphyria variegata. 8t) Porphyrin. 8U Positional cloning. 485, 565—66, 565. 566 Position effects, 86—87, 2111, 296 of inversions, 204—5 Positive assortive mating, 633 Positive control, 393, 398—99, 404—5, 420—22 Positive control catabolite, activating protein in exerting, over the [ac operon, 398—99. 399 Positive interference, | 14—15 Positively charged R group, 350, 350 Postreplication repair, 378—79. 378 Postlranscriptional gene silencing (:PTGS'), 425—26 Posttranscriptional modification. 322—23, 336 Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, 423—26 Posttrauslational modification. 352—53 Postxygotic isolating mechanisms, 648 Powers, Dennis A., 645—46 Prader—Willi syndrome (PWS), 89 prod gene, 90 Preconception gender selection (PGS). 183 Predicted values, 54 Pre—initiation complex (PIC), 417—18, 418 Premature aging syndromes. 281 Pre-mRNA, 3211 Prenatal diagnosis of sickle—cell anemia. 555—56, 556 Prenatal genotyping. for mutations in [3-globin gene. 555—56, 557 Preproinsulin. 552 P/‘avwrelin 1 (PSI) gene, 429 Prczygotic isolating mechanisms, 648 Pribnow box. 3 I9 Primary constrictions, 298 Primary oocytc, 31, 32 Primary sex ratio, 175 Primary sexual differentiation. 166 Primary spermatocyte. 31, 31 Primary structure, 35l Primase, 272 Primer, 270, 272 Primer annealing, 467 Prion hypothesis, 356 Privacy, genetic, 2 Privacy. issue of, 2 pro-a-ZU) collagen gene, 324 Probability conditional, 52 laws of, in explaining genetic events, 51-54 Probability value. 54 Proband, 57 Probes, 470 in identifying specific cloned sequences, 470—71 Processivity. 276 Product law. 45, 51—52 Prollavin, 308, 370, 371 Programmed cell death, 5.94, 594 Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), 90 Prokaryotes, 19 gene expression in, 392—410 lactose metabolism in Escherichia colt". 393—98, 394, 395, 396, 396, 399 genetic mechanisms in responding to environmental conditions. 393 photoreaetivation repair of UV-damagcd. 379 reversal of ultraviolet damage in. 379. 379 Prokaryotic genomes. features of, 491492. 491. 492 Prokaryotic transcription. 320L231 Prometaphase. 24. 26. 27 Promoter region. 398 Promoters. 318419. 321 core. 413 modular organization of. 413—14. 414 RNA polymerases and. 413. 417 Proofreading. 273. 377—73 Prophage. 151 Prophase. 24. 24 Prophase l. 27. 28—39. 28 Prophase H. 2940. 30 Protein-DNA binding sites. genome—wide mapping of. 538. 538 Protein domains. 35%55 origin of. 354—55. 355 Protein kinases. 438 Protein polymorphisms. 642—43. 64.? Proteins alternative splicing and, 425 biological function and. 6 functional domains of. 355F155 as genetic material. 333. 233 importance of heredity in. 34344 polypeptides vs.. 349 proteomics in identification and analysis of. 505—9. 506 relationship to molecule structure. 353—54. 354 ribosomal. 335 structure of. as basis of biological diversity. 349—53. 352 synthesis of. 5 three-dimensional conformation of. 6 Protein targeting. 353 Protenor mode of sex determination, 169—70. 170 Proteome. 423. 505 Proteome analysis of nucleolus. 50879. 508. S09 Proteomics. 485. 50579. 506. 537 technology of. 506—7. 506. 507 Pinto-oncogenes. 98. 4434-4. 442 Protoplasts. 197, 239 l’rototrophs. 138. 375 Provirus. 449 Prusincr. Stanley. 356 Pseudoaurosomal regions (PARs). E73. 174 Psettdodominance. 300 Pseudogenes. 174, 301. 501. 504-5 Ps‘ctrdontrmas om‘rrginom. 406, 487 functional classes of predicted genes in. 490 genome. [52. 487. 489. 490 Pseudouridine. 33.6 Psoriasis. 328 pUC‘lil plasmid. 461. 461 Full. 291. 291 Pulsed—field gel electrophoresis. 468769. 469 Punnett. Reginald C... 43. 77 Punnett squares. 43. 44. 46. 74. 77 Purging genetic load. 668 Purine ring. 242 Purines. 241, 242 Pyrimidine dimers. 372. 372 Pyrimidine ring. 242 Pyrimidines. 241. 242 Q Q arm. 20 QTL mapping population. 609 Qualitative trait loci. mapping of. 609—10. 610 Quantitative character. analysis of. 604-5. 605 Quantitative genetics. 5997616 continuous variation in. 601) contribution to phenotypic variability in. 605-8 inheritance of traits in. 600 mapping of trait loci in. 609—11). 610 Mendelian terms in explaining traits in. 600—6113 statisticai analysis in. 603—5. 603 twin studies in. 608—9 Quantitative inheritance. 600. 601. 602 Quantitative trait loci (QTLs). 609—“) Quantitative traits inheritance of. 600. 601. 602 Mendelian terms in explaining. 600—603. 601. 602 natural selection and. 628—39. 628. 629 Quaternary level of organization. 352. 352 Quiescent cells. 437 Quorex. 406 Quorum sensing. 4136 R RAD52 complex. 38] Radiation generating mutants with. 523 highwencrgy. in inducing mutations. 369. .372 ultraviolet. thymine dimers and. 370. 371—72. 372. 379 Radical (R) group. 349750 Ragged red Fiber disease. rnyoclonie epilepsy and. 221722 Ramakrishnan. V.. 342 Rana pipiens. 22 Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). 479 Random genetic drift. 367 Rophrums swims. 197 Rapid lysis. 153 RARa. 44.? Res proteins. 445 ms prom-oncogenes. 44344. 443. 444 RE]. 442. 445—46. 446 red] gene. 90 Index 1-19 red? gene. 90 R—dctcrminants. 146—47. 146 rng gene. 13. rdgC' gene. 1} Reactions. energy ol" activation in. 6 "Reading frame" hypothesis. 373 Realized heritability. 607 Reassociation kinetics. repetitive DNA and. 355—57. 255. 256 RecA protein. I46. 278 RecBCD protein. 146 Receptor molecules. 1 8 Receptors, 353 Receptor tyrosine kinase pathway, 59/ Recessive epistasis. 77 Recessive lethal allele. 72 Recessive lethal initiations. 524. 525 ReceSsive trait. 41—42. 57—58. 57. 58 Reciprocal classes of phenotypes. [UH Reciprocal crosses. 41 Reciprocal exchange events. E39 Reciprocal transiocation. 206. 206 Recognition sequence. 458 Recombinant DNA molecule. 458 Recambinant DNA studies. 5—7. 7. I47 Recombinant DNA technology. 240. 315. 457783 cloned sequence characterization. 47 1—78 by DNA sequencing. 474—78. 475. 476. 477. 478 by nucleic acid blotting. 47344 by restriction mapping. 471—73. 472. 473 DNA cloning in prokaryotic host cells. 46344. 464 experimental techniques in. 458 as foundation of genome analysis. 453 gene transfer to eukaryotic cells. 465—66. 466 [mammalian cell hosts. 466. 466 plant cell hosts. 465%6. 465 human genome found and mapped using. 564437 fluorescent in sim hybridization (FISH! gene mapping. 566—67. 567 linkage analysis with RFLPs. 565. 565. 566 positional cloning. 565466. 566 RFLPs as genetic markers. 564—65. 564 impact of. 9—10 libraries. 468—71 cDNA. 469—70. 470 chromosome-specific. 468—69. 469 clones recovered from. 47047 I genomic. 468 screening. 471 . 472 polymerase chain reaction in. 466—63. 467 limitations 01'. 467—68 other applications of. 468 restriction enzymes in. 7. 458—60. 459. 460 vectors in. 460—63 bacterial artificial chromosomes as. 462—63. 463 l—20 Index Recombinant DNA technology (c0121.) cosinid. 462. 463 ex pression. 463. 464 lambda (It) phage. 461—62. 462 plasmid. 460761. 461 yeast cells as eukaryotic hosts For cloning. 464-65. 465. 465 Recombinant gametes. 102 Recombinant vectors. 460 Recombination. 101 in F'1 X F7 matings, 14—1—45 intragenic. I54—58 in phage T4. 155—56. 155. 157. 158 mitotic. l 18. 119 Recombinational analysis. 156. 157. 526 Rec proteins in bacterial recombination. 1-46 Red blood cells. 64' Red—green color blindness. I77 Reductional division. 27. 28 Reduction in gene flow in genetic conservation. 669 Regulator quantity (1") mutant strain. 398 Regulatory mutations. 365 discovery of. 39¥95 Reid. Brian. 540 Repeating copolymet's. 312—13. 3‘12. 313 Repeat sequences. 368 Repetitive DNA. 297—98. 297 reassociation kineties and. 255257. 255. 256 Repetitive DNA sequences. 256 Repetitive sequences in eukaryotic. genomes. 494 Repetitive transposed sequences. 300—301 Replica plating technique. 524 Replication. 232 conservative. 264. 264 dispersive, 264. 265 errors. 36M9 origin of. 266—68. 267 semiconsen'ative. 264768. 264 Replication fork. 266—68. 276 Replication of genes. 274. 274 Replicative form. 269 Replicon. 266—67 Replisonie. 271. 272 Repressibie system. 393 tryptophan HIP} operon in Escherichia r'nli as. 401—2. 401 Repression loop. 400—44“ Repi'cssor isolation of. 397—98 Repressor complexes. crystal structure analysis of. 399—401. 400 Repressor gene. 395 Repressor molecule. 395 Reproductive isolating mechanisms, 648, 648 Reproductive organs, development of. 648 Reptiles. temperature variation in controlling sex determination in. l81782 Research stem cell. 595 Resistance transfer factor (RTF). 14-6-47. 146 Response. 607 Restriction enzymes. 7. 458—60. 459. 460 Restriction Fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPsl. 12B. 485, 565 genetic mtu'kcrs as. 564—65. 564 linkage analysis using. 565. 566 Restriction fragments. 458 Restriction mapping. 47143. 472. 473 Restrictive condition. 87. 524 Retinitis pigmentosa, 11, 13 Retinoblastoma. ll . 445—46. 446. 447 Retinoblastoma protein (pRB). 4-15. 446 Retrograde transfer. 544 Retrotransposons. 300 Retroviruses. 240. 449. 449 Reverse genetics. 517. 529 cloned gene in. 531733, 531, 532. 533 gene targeting technologies in. 535—36. 534. 535. 536 mutant model organisms in. 530—31 protein purification in. 529—30. 530 Reverse genetic techniques, 376 Reverse transcriptase, 240—4] . 449. 469 Reverse transcriptase PCR (RTrPCR). 470 Reverse transcription. 240. 278 Rh antigens. 126 Rheumatoid arthritis. 328 Ribonuclease tRNase). 235 Ribonucleic acid. See RNA (ribonucleic acid) Ribonucleoproteirt. 278 Ribose, 5. 241. 242 Ribosomal proteins, 335 Ribosomal RNA trRNA‘). 249-51. 327 Ribosomal RNA trRNA) genes. [9. 200—201. 220. 232 Ribosomal structure. 335—36. 336 Ribosomes. 5. 19. 251 Ribothymidylic acid. 336 Ribozymes. 324 Ribulose-l -5—bisphosphare carboxvlase (Rubisco). 220 Rice genetically modified, 9 golden. 9. 551. 552 Rich. Alexander. 248 Richmond. Timothy. 295 Ricketrsia ,urrm'azekii. 658. 658 H] gene map. 157—58 RIP. 406 RlSC (RNA—induced silencing complex). 425, 4'26 RLL locus. deletion testing in. 156—57. 157 RNA (ribonucleic acid). 5 See also Messenger RNA (mRNA) analytical techniques in investigating. 251—57 antisense. 25 l . 328 autocatalytic. 324—25. 32.5 bacterial. 3}? editing, 326 as genetic material in some viruses. 24041-1 gRNA (guide RNA). 326 messenger. 249—51 ribosomal. 18. 200-20]. 220. 232. 249—5 1 . 327 RNA polymerase in directing synthesis. 318720 sense. 328 short interfering tsiRNA). 251. 328. 426. 426 small nuclear. 325 splicing. 180 structure of. 249—5 1. 251 telomerase. 251 transfer (tRNA). 5. 221. 232, 249751. 309. 334. 335—38. 338 RNA-directed DNA metltylation iRdDM). 426. 426 RNA heteropolymers. 311,) RNA liomopolymers, 311) RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), 425. 4'26 RNA interference (RNAi). 425—26. 536—37. 537 RNA polymerases. 320—2 I. 321 in directing RNA synthesis. 318720 promoters and. 413. 417 recent discoveries concerning functions. 321—22 RNA replicase. 240 RNAse 1-1. 469, 4713 RNA silencing of gene expression, 425—26. 425, 42.6 RNA synthesis. initiation. elongation. and termination of. 319—20. 319 Roberts. 1.. 337 Roberts, Richard. 323 Robertsonian translocation. 206. 297 Romanov. Georgij. 227 Romanovs. mitochondrial DNA in solving mystery of. 226727 Rough endoplasmic reticulum. 19 Rous. Francis Peyton. 4-19 Rous sarcoma virus {RSV}. 449 R plasmids. 146—47. I46 Rubin. Edward, 499—500 Rubin. Gerald. 385 Rubinstein—Taybi syndrome. 429 rttgostrs gene. 334 Russell. Liane. 177' Russet Burbank potato. 665 Rye. amphidiploid. 197 S Sam'J'Icmmryce'r ccret’isr'ctc. S. 12. 12. 22. 35. I95—96. 464. 5|7. 538 See also Yeast CEN regions of. 299, 299 gene function in. 505 genetic analysis of. 489790 petites in. 217 Sachs. Bernard. 59 Sacks. Oliver. 632 Sager, Ruth. 1156. 216 Still. 471. 473 Salmonella (312M. 630 Salmonella typliimurium. 151, [5| in Atncs test. 377. 377 Sample. 603 Sanger. James. 474 Satellite DNA. 297—98. 298 Saturated mutagenesis, 523 St'liimsncclmmmyr'm pnmbc. 5 I7, 540 Schulte. Patricia. 645—46 Schiipbach. Trudi. 582 Schwann. Theodor. 2 Secondary oocyte. 31. 32 Secondary sex ratio, 175 Secondary sexual dil'l'erentiatitm, 166 Secondary spermatoeytes. 31. 31 Secondary structure. 351 Second-division segregation, 121-22 Second filial generation (th], 40 Second polar body. 31, 32 Sedimentation behavior, 251. 252. 253 Sedimentation equilibrium ccntril‘ugation. 253. 265 Sedimentation velocity centril'ugation. 253 Segmental deletions. 189 Segmentation genes. 582 Segment polarity genes. 584, 584 Segregation. 37. 42, 50 adjacent. 206 alternate. 206 first-division. 121. 122 second-division. 121—22 Segregational petites. 217 Selection. 525 Selection differential, 607 Selection genes. homeotic. in regulatory llower development in Ambit/opus. 589—90. 590. 590 Selector genes. 583. 590 Sell-excision process. 324 Sell-fertilization. 40. 633 Selling. 4O Semiconservativc replication. 264 in etlkatyotes. 266. 266 in reproducing DNA. 264—68 Semidominance. 201 Semistcrility. 206 Sense RNA. 328 Sequence alignments. 531 Sequence motifs. 529 Sequences centromerie DNA. 298—99 repeat. 368 Serial dilution technique, 139, 139 Serotypes. 234 Severe combined immunodeficiency (SC 1D). 561 gene therapy for. 561—62. 56], 562 X-linked form of. 562, 569 Sex chromatin body. 176 Sex chromosomes. 166 Sex determination. 165-86 Protenor mode ol". 169—70, 170 temperature variation in controlling. in reptiles. 181—82 XX/XO of. 169—70. 170 Sex—determining region Y (SRY), 173—74, 174 Sex—determining chromosomes. ‘22 Sex differentiation. link between X and Y chromosomes to. 169—70. 170 SexAinl'luenced inheritance. 84—85, 85 Sex-limited inheritance. 84—85. 84 Sex ratio. 224 primary. 175 secondary. 175 Sex reversal. 168 Sex selection in humans. 183 Sexual diflercntiation in humans. 173 life cycles and. 166—69 primary. I66 secondary. I66 Sexual reproduction, meiosis as critical to, for diploid organisms. 32—33 SF] gene. 174 Sharp, Philip. 323 Shine—Dalgarno sequence. 339 Short interfering RNA (siRNA). 251. 328. 426, 426 Short—interspersed elements (SINES), 300—30 1 , 386. 651. 652 Short tandem repeats (STRs). 567—68. 568 Shotgun cloning. 486. 486, £187 Shuttle vectors. 462 Sibley, Charles. 654 Sibs. 57 Sibship line. 57 Sickle-cell anemia, 6—7. 10, 11,58, 98. 258. 347—48. 347. 361. 429 prenatal diagnosis of. 555—56, 556 Sicklecell trait. 347 Sigma, 224 Sigma subunit. 318—19. 31‘) Signaling systems in development, 590—9 1 . 59} Notch. 591. 591 Signal sequence. 353 Signal transduction. 439—40 Silent mutation. 364 Singer, B.. 240 Single crossovers, 106—7. 106. 109, 113 Single-crystal X ray analysis. 248 Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and genetic screening, 556—57. 557. 558 Single nucleotide polymorphisms ['SNPs). 128. 485 Single-strand displacement. 146 Single-stranded binding proteins (SSBPs), 272 Sinslieimer, Robert. 239. 26‘) Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). 120. 120 Sister chromatids. 20. 21. 25. 27 exchanges in. 120, 120 Site-directed mutagenesis. 534—36 SLO gene. 423—25. 424 Small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs, or snttrps). 325 Small nuclear RNA (snRNA). 251, 325 Smith, C. A.. 126 Index I-21 Smith, Michael. 534 Smoking, 451 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 1‘) Society. genetics and. 2 SOD. 543—44 SOD] gene, 543—44 Solarium ruberornm. 22 Somatic cell hybridization. 126, 197. 197, 380—81 Somatic gene therapy, 563 Somatic mutations. gametic mutations versus, 363—64 Sonneborn, Tracy, 222 SOS repair system. 378-79 Southern, Edward. 473 Southern blot hybridization. 555, 556 Southern blots. 257. 473—74. 475. 565. 565 SOX‘} gene, 174 Soybeans glypliosate-resislant. 550 herbicide-resistant, 9 Spacer DNA. 335 Specialized transduction, 152 Speciation, 64142 examples of. 649 gene flow between populations and. 647—49 minimum genetic divergence required for. 649—5 1. 650. 651 speed of. 651—53. 651. 652. 653 Species. 641 biological, 647 definition of. 647 Specific transcription factors, 321 Spemann. Hans, 509 Spermatids, 31. 3| Spcrimttogcncsis. 31—32. 31 Spcrmatogonium. 31. 3| Spermatozoa. 31. 31 Spermiogenesis. 31 S phase, 23 Spheroplasts, 239 Spicing mechanisms. 324—26, 325 Spiegclman. Sol. 240 Spinal cord injuries. stem cell research and, 595 Spindle fibers, 3. 20. 25 Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy disease). 374, 374 Spinoccrebcllar ataxia, ll Spizizen. John. 239 Spliccosome. 325—26. 325. 508 Splicing. 320 Split genes. 320.323 Spongil'orm encephalopathies, 356 Spontaneous abortions. risk of, 634 Spontaneous mtttations. 138, 362—63. 363 ol'bacleria, 138—39 rates of. 365—66. 366, 367 from replication errors and base modifications. 366—69 Spores. IS Sporophyte, 33. 168 Sporophyte stage. 32 Spring, .lurg, 203 1-22 Index Srh. Adrian. 346 SRY gene. 522 Stabilizing selection. 628. 628 Stadler. Lewis 1.. 362. 372 Stahl. Franklin. 265—66 Stamens. 167 Standard deviation. 604. 604 Standard error of mean. 604 Slapliylomcci infections. 406 Starch-branching enzyme ($13131), 384—85 Starch gel electrophoresis. 347 Stasis. 641 Stationary phase. 138, I39 Statistical analysis. 603—5. 603 Stem cell research. 595 Stephens. J.C.. 626 Stern. Curt. 117. 118 Stop codons. 341 (+) Strand. 269 (-) Strand. 269 Streptococcus pnermmniue. 233M Streptomycin. resistance to. I47 STREX exon, 424 Structural genes. 394. 394 Structtrral genomics, 485 Sturtevant. Alfred H., 49. 104—6. 180. 201 Srvlmrvcliia. 3 16 Submctacentrie chromosome. 20. 21 Substitution editing. 326 Subtrnit. 318. 319 Subunit vaccines. 554 Sull‘onamide. resistance to. 147 Sum law. 51—52 Supercoiled DNA. 289—90 Supercoiling. 272. 289—90. 289 Suppression. genetic. 86 Suppressive mutations. 217 Suppressive petite. 217 Suppressor mutation, 315. 525, 527—28. 5211 Sutton. Walter. 4. 49. 82. 101 SV41) enhancer. 415. 415 SV40 virus. 316—17 Svedberg coefficients. 251. 253 Sweat glands. absence of. 177. 178 SW l/SNF. 420—21 le gene. 427 Synapse. 28 Synapsis. 29. 34, 35 of translocation heterozygote. 206. 2116 Synaptonemal complex. 29. 34—35. 35 Syncytial blastoderrn. 5811. 581 Synkaryon, 126-27 Synpolydactyly (SPD). 587. 587 Synteny testing. 127. 127 Systematics. 2 T Tandem repeats. 335 Tanksley. Steven. 611 Taq polymerase. 467. 470 Targeting vector. 533—34 Tassels, 167 TATA-binding protein (TBI’). 321.418. 418. 422 "I‘ATA box. 319. 321. 413—14 TATA box-binding protein (TBP). 411 Tatum. Edward. 87. 139. 344416. 347. 375 Tautomeric shifts. 368, 369 Tautomers. 366 Taxol. 664 Taxonomists. 647 Tax protein. 4511—51 Turns [nevi/Mia. 664 Tay. Warren. 59 Taylor. Harriet. 236 Taylor. J. Herbert. 266 Tay—Sachs disease. 11. 58. 59. 64. 69. 88. 258, 365 TBP’associated l'actors (TAFs). 418 Telocentric chromosome. 21). 21 Telomerase. 277. 277. 3110 as key to immortality. 281 Telomet'ase RNA. 251 Telomere-assoeiated sequences. 276—77. 299—3111) Telomeres. 199. 276. 281 Telomeric DNA sequences. 299—300 Telophase. 23. 24. 25. 26~27 Telophase l. 29. 3|) Telophttse 11. 3t). 30 Temperate. 151 Tcmperattire-dependent sex determination (TSD).181.181 Temperature effects, 87. 87 Temperature sensitive. 87 Temperature-sensitivc mutations. 274. 365 Temperature variation in controlling sex determination in reptiles. 181—82 Template binding. 318—19 Terminal deletions. 199 Terminalization. 28. 29 Termination. 339. 341 Termination codons. 315, 341 Termination factor. rho. 320 Terminator hairpin. 402. 403. 4113 Terminator in current structure. 402—3. 4112 Territories. 413. 413 Tertiary protein structure, 351. 352 Test cross. 43. 44. 47. 47 Testis—determining factor (TDFJ, 173 Tetracycline. resistance to, 147 Tetrad. 27. 28. 28. 29. 121 Tctrad analysis ordered. 12]. 123 unordered. 123 7l'truhymenu, 277—78. 316 telomeric DNA sequences in. 299 Tett'amer, 400 Tetrarrucleotide hypothesis. 233. ‘243 Tetraploid. I88. 194. 195. 195 Tetratypes (T). 124—25 Tetratype tetrads. production 01‘. 125—26 T-even bacteriophage. 236—37, 237 T—even phages. mutant types 01'. [53 T—even series of bacteriophages. 287 TFllA, 321 TFIIB, 321 TFIID. 321, 418. 422 THIH factor. 381 '1 (IF—[3 pathway. 59! Thalassemia. 63 The lnstittrte for Genome Research (TIGR). 486 Tlterrnoeyclers. 467 Thor/nus t/temmp/ri/ux. 334. 342 |3mers. 271 Thoday. John, 628 Thomas. Charles. 326 Three-factor cross. 47 Three-point mapping in Dmsoplzila. 108—11). 109 Tl‘rree-strand double exchange. 1 15 Thrconine. 316 Threshold traits. 601). 61111 Tliymine dimers. ultraviolet radiation and. 371). 371—72. 372, 379 Tlrymine (T). 5. 241. 242. 247 5-hrotnouracil’s similarity to. 371]. 3711 Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase ('TlMP). 447 Tjio. Joe Him. 170 Tobacco mosaic virus ITMV). 240. 241. 309 Tobacco plants. transgenic. 554. 554 '[opoisomeraseg 29(1 Topoisotners. 290 Totipotent stem cells. 595 T phage. 5. 12 tm genes. 141 Traits, transmission 01'. 2—3 Transacctylase, 394 71'mr.t'-acting elements. 393-94 'l'runs-acting factors. 319 firms—activating domain. 418. 421.421 Tt‘anscriptase. reverse. 449 Transcription. 5, 6. 67 abortive, 322 electron microscopy in visualizing. 326—27. 327 enhancers in controlling rate 01,414—15. 415 in eukaryotes, 415—17. 416. 417 Chromatin remodeling and, 415—16. 416. 417 factors. 321. 417. 417. 418 gap-gene. 583 initiation of. in Eukaryotes. 320—21 process of. 306 reverse. 278 in synthesizing RNA on DNA template. 317 Transcriptional derepression. 429 'I‘ranser'iption-coupled repair. 381 Transcription factors. 420 Transcription start site. 318. 321 Transducing phages. 152 Transduction, 139. 151—53 abortive. 152 Complete. 152 generalized. 152. 152 1._ederherg—Zinder experiment. 151. 151 mapping and. 153 nature 01’. 152—53 specialized. 152 Transiection. 239 Transfer RNA ttRNA). 5. 221. 232. 249—5 1. 309. 334, 335—38, 338 Transformations. 139, 147-48 Avery. MacLeod. and McCarty experiment in, 235—36. 236 early studies of. 233735. 235 Hershey—Chase experiment in. 23638, 237. 238 linked genes and. 14748 mapping and. 147—48 process of. 147. 148 transfection experiments in, 239 Transformed adenomas. 448 Transforming principle. 235 Transgenic animals. 240 pharmaceutical products and hosts, 553—54. 554 Transgenic mice. 174, 521—22. 522 Transgenic organisms, 10, 466 Transgenic plants edible vaccines and. SSLSS. 555 herbicide resistance and. 550, 554 Transition, 364 Translation. 5, 6 charging tRNA. 337-38. 338 crystallographic analysis, 342 in eukaryotes. 34341-3 importance of protein in heredity. 343—44 in messenger RNA (mRNA). 335—38 of mRNA, 335—38 oneagene, one-enzyme hypothesis, 344—46 ribosomai structure. 335—36. 336 steps in. 33841.339 elongation. 339—40. 340 termination, 340—41, 341 studies of human hemoglobin. 346—49 translation. polyribosomes. 341, 341 tRNA structure, 336—37. 338 Translocations. 128. 436, 438. 443 of chromosome mutations, 198—99, 198. 206—7. 206 14/21 DIG. 207 in humans. 206—7. 207. 208 reciprocal. 206. 206. 438. 438 Robertsonian. 206. 207 Transmission genetics, 40. 67 foundation of modern. 49—51 Transport proteins. 353 Transposable elements. 362. 382 See disc) Transposon (Tn) elements in humans, 386 Transposable sequences. 300 Transposase enzyme. 382 Transposori (Tn) elements. 362, 382—86 bacterial. 382-83. 383 mutant generation with. 523 spontaneous mutations and. 369 trans regulators, 414 Transversion. 364 TRAP in governing attenuation in Bacillus subtilis. 40341. 403 Trichodentoosseous syndrome (TDO'). 588—89 Trihybrid cross. 47—49. 48 Trinucleotide. 243 Trinucleotide-repeal disorders, 3 74 Trinucleotide repeats. 208 sequence in. 373774 Triplet binding assay. 311—12. 312, 312 Triplets. 307. 308 Tripioid. 188. 194. 195. 195 Trisorny. 190—94, 192 Trisomy 13, 193 Trisomy 18, 193 Trisomy 21. 191 Ti'i't‘horrtt' proteins. 5 38 Tri'ri'caie. 197 Triricum rtesrii'irm, 22 Trivalent. 190. I91 tRNA structure. 336—37. 338 Trp operon Escherichia coli attenuation as critical process during regulation of, 40243, 402 evidence for. 40172 Tip RNA-binding attenuation protein {TRAP}. 403—4. 403 Tijvprrnosoma. 326 Trypsin. 296 Tryptophan (trp) operon in Escherichia 09040141401 Tryptophan (ter synthetase. 349. 401 Tschermak. Eric Von. 49 Tubulin. 26 posttranslational regulation of. 428. 428 Tubulin—derived microtubules. 19 Tumor‘tgenesis. 437 Tumors benign. 436 in liver. 447 malignant, 436, 437 Wiims. 447 Tumor—suppressor genes, 437. 442, 44446 Turner syndrome. 171. 172. 188 Turnover rate. 427 Twins dizygotic. 57. 608. 609 fraternal. 57. 608 identical. 57. 608 monozygotic. 57. 608. 609 Twin spot. 118. 119 Twin studies. 60879 Two-dimensional electrophoresis, 505. 506, 507. 508 Two—dimensional gel electrophoresis. 506. 507 Two-factor cross. 44—47. 45 Two-strand double exchange, 1 15 Typhoid fever. enhanced resistance to. 630 Tyrosinase gene, 531 Tyrosine. 343. 343. 352 U UK Biobank, 2 Ultraviolet (UV) light. 239—40 index 1-23 absorption of, 251 cancer and. 451 Ultraviolet (UV) radiation. 371—72. 371. 372 thymine dimers and, 370. 37142, 372. 379 Unidirectional replication. 266 Uniparental inheritance. 2 [6 Unisexual, 166 United States Supreme Court. [(1 Unit factors. 41. 49—51. 50. 344 in pairs. 41 Units of inhen'tance. 40 Univalents, 190 Unordered tetrad analysis. 123 Unscheduled DNA synthesis. 380 UPGMA. 653—54. 655 Upstream activator sequences (UAS). 415. 420—21 Uracil. 5. 241. 242. 369 Uridine. 242 Urinary stones, 84 V 11-0171, 450 Vaccines attenuated. 554 edible, 159 transgenic plants and. 554—55. 555 for Hepatitis B virus. 55455 inactivated. 554 subunit. 554 Valbuzzi. Angela. 404 Variable gene activity hypothesis. 576 Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs). 300. 567 Variance. 603—4 additive, 607 dominance. 607 interactive. 607 Variations biochemical, 365 nutritional, 365 Variegation in four o’clock plants. 215. 215 Vavilov. N. 1.. 611 Vectors, 778 Venter, Craig. 486. 502—3 12-2168. 450 v-for. 450 v-Hrt-ras, 450 Vibrt'o choleme, 159. 406 in genome analysis, 492, 492 Wbriofischeri, 406 Vibrio hart-e34. 406 Wcicrfaba. 22. 266, 267 Victoria, Queen. 376 Vinograd, Jerome. 289 Viral chromosomes. 287. 288, 288 supercoiling in. 289—90 Virulent strains, 151, 233u34 Viruses. 12. 20 acute transforming, 449 cancer and. 449—5 1 . 449. 450 Hepatitis B. 554 intergenic recombination and mapping in bacterial, 153—54 1-24 Index Viruses (c0777.) Moloney murine leukemia. 561. 561 polyoma. 287 ribonucleic acid (RNA) as genetic material in some. 240—41 tobacco mosaic. 2411. 309 Vitamin A deficiency. 9 was rupertrij. 672773 Vilravenel'“. 328 v-myc. 450 Volkin. Elliot. 317 u—onc gene. 449. 449 Von HippeliLindau syndrome. 447 Von Winiwartcr. 11.. 170 v-.ri.r, 450 i'-.rr(‘. 450 Vulva formation. genetic analysis of. 592794. 592 W W'allace. Alfred Russel. 49. 618. 642 Walzer. Stanley. 172 W’ang. Andrew. 248 Wang. James. 290 Wasinger, Valerie. 507 Watson. James. S. 232. 244. 245—48. 246. 258, 264. 368 Watson—Crick model. 245—48, 246. 247 Watts-Tobin. R. 1.. 308 Weinberg, Wilhelm. 618 Weiss, Samuel. 318 Werner syndrome, 11. 281 Western blot. 474 Wheat. amphidiploid. 197 White blood cell. 441 Whitehouse. Harold L.K.. 278 White locus in Dmsnphila. 72. 72 Widow's peak. 58 Wieschaus. Eric. 226. 526. 541—43. 541. 582—113 Wild-type alleles. 67. 68. 102. 189 Wilkins. Maurice. 244. 245. 250 Williams syndrome. 429 W'ilnis tumor. 44? Wilmut. Ian. 509 Wilson. Edmund H. 169 W m pathway. 59] Wobble hypothesis. 313—14, 342 Wollman. Ellie. 141413 Wood. William. 149 Woods. Philip, 266 World Conservation Union (IUCN). 664 Wright. Sewall. 618. 632. 633 WT} gene, 174 X Xanthommalin. 79. 80 X chromosomes. 22. 81. S9 banding pattern. 297. 297 cancer and inactivation of, 436 link to sex deten‘rtination. 169770 ratio of, to sets of autosomes in determining sex in [)mvupl'iila. 178781 Variations in number 45. X746. XX combination. 171 45. X746. XY combination, ]71 45. X syndrome, 171 46. —5p, 190 47. +21. 191 47. XXX syndrome. 171. 172 47. XYY condition. 171. 172—73. 773 48. XXXX. I72 48. XXXY syndrome. 171 48. XXYY syndrome. 171 49. XXXXX. 172 49. XXXXY syndrome, 171 49. XXXYY syndrome. 171 X-degenerative region. 174 Xenopas Iowa's. 201. 219. 419. 470—71 Xeroderrna pigmentosum, 372 Xeroderma pigmentasum gene A (XPA ). 381 Xeroderma pigmentosum {X P). 380481, 381, 438 Xgal. 461. 461 X-inactivation center. 1713 X-inactive specific transcript. 178 X~1inkage. 67. 81—84. 104 in mephila. 81—82. 81. 82 in humans. 82—84. 83. 83 X—linked diseases. 183 X~linked form of severe combined immunodeficiency tSClD). 562. 569 X-linked lethal mutations, 372. 372 X-linked mental retardation. 429 X—linked mutations. 363—64, 376, 376 X-linked traits. calculating allele frequencies for. 623—24 XP/iiX PG. 442 X—ray diffraction analysis. 245. 245 X rays. 37]. 372. 372 XRCC} gene. 531 X—transposed region, 174 XX/XO of sex determination. 169470 Y Yanofsky. Charles. 349. 402. 4034 Y chromosomes, 22. 8 1. 169—70 in determining maleness in humans. 170—75. 171 link to sex determination. 169470 male development and. 173—75 Yeast cell cycle genes in. 539—40. 539. 540 gene cloning in. 528 gene replacement in. 533 life cycle of. 518. 518 as model organism in mutational analysis. 517—19. 518 Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). 464. 465 Yeast cells, 464—65, 465 morphology of. 539. 539 recombinant proteins synthesized in. 464—65 Yeast gal genes. 4211722, 421 Yeast Genome Project. 469 Yeminio penis. 626 Young. Michael, 385 Yule. Ci. Udny. 601. 618 Z Z-DNA. 247. 248. 249 Zen arrays. 11. 12. 22. 166. 167468. 163 Zeta 15’) chains. 34S Zinc 1ingers.418. 419420. 419 Zioder. Norton, 151 zip] . 35 Zoospores. 166 Zygonema. 28. 29 Zygotes. 23. 577 Zygotic genes. 582 segment formation and. 583784. 583. 583. 584 ZZ/ZW. 170 ...
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