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NPB.101.Final1.Wingfield.09 - NPB 101 Autumn 2009 FINAL...

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NPB 101, Autumn 2009. FINAL EXAM outline 1 (Wingfield lectures) Outline of topics you need to focus on for WINGFIELD lectures for the final exam. Questions will come from powerpoints NPB.101.endocrinology1.09 to NPB.101.Endocrinology4.09. A separate outline will be provided for the reproduction lectures. Questions on the final will be multiple choice (see the example of a previous exam on the course website). This guide is meant for Wingfield lectures on endocrinology only (see earlier guide for Wingfield lectures on neurophysiology). Wingfield questions will focus on physiological function. You do not need to know the DETAILS of anatomy, just the major points as indicated below. NPB.101.Endocrinology1.09.ppt The major function of hormones (9 types of action). -- Neurotransmitters propagate or terminate electrical signals, influence muscle contraction at neuromuscular junctions, affect hormone release, or other secretions such as enzymes, regulate ion and other channels etc. - Note the general approach throughout – for each hormone mentioned below, what does it do? What is the mechanism of control (of synthesis and secretion)? What is the mechanism of action (receptors).
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Hypothalamus and neuroendocrine secretions occur in association areas (integration, storage and use of diverse sensory input for planning of purposeful actions) The hypothalamo-pituitary unit. Hormones of the hypothalamus have three major classifications: those that act within the brain (peptides ), those secreted as hormones from the posterior pituitary and those secreted from the median eminence that affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Brain (peptides) - Expressed in hypothalamus and other areas of the brain. - typically cleaved from large precursor molecules, sometimes more than one per precursor. - modified post-cleavage by amidation, acetylation,sulphation, glycosylation and phosphorylation - autocrine, paracrine, neuroendocrine and endocrine actions. - typically have multiple receptor types and biological actions - expressed in other areas of the body as well, particularly G.I. tract and skin. Brain peptide effects: Behavioral – Pain , Memory and learning , Feeding , Sexual behavior , Drinking , Hypnotic effects Non-Behavioral effects - Temperature regulation , Blood pressure , Neuroendocrine ( cells that release a hormone into the circulating blood in response to a neural stimulus.) -Specialized groups of neuroendocrine cells can be found at the base of the third ventricle in the brain (in a region called the hypothalamus). This area controls most anterior pituitary cells and thereby regulates functions in the entire body, like responses to stress, cold, sleep, and the reproductive system. The neurons send processes to a region connecting to the pituitary stalk and the hormones (called releasing or inhibiting hormones) are released into the blood stream. They are carried by portal vessels to the pituitary cells where they may stimulate, inhibit, or maintain the function of a particular cell type. Median Eminence:
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NPB.101.Final1.Wingfield.09 - NPB 101 Autumn 2009 FINAL...

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