Lecture 9

Lecture 9 - Lecture 9 Background Reading Garrett and...

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Lecture 9 2/4/10 Background Reading: Garrett and Grisham: Chapter 7 Outline: ± Historical overview of glycobiology ± Monosaccharides ± Modifications of monosaccharides ± Oligosaccharides ± Classes of glycans ± Biological roles of glycans ± Lectins
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± Overview of history of glycobiology In the first half of the 20 th century, carbohydrates were well-recognized as an important source of energy and known to play a structural role in living organisms. Considerable attention was paid to the chemistry and metabolism of these carbohydrates.: Some early landmarks in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry: 1891: Emil Fischer had already pioneered his stereometric studies on the structure of glucose and other monosaccharies. 1929: Haworth established the pyranose and furanose ring structures of monosaccharides 1930’s and 1940’s: Initial work was done on the carbohydrate complexes found in mucins and connective tissues. Dische developed a number of colorimetric procedures for the quantitative analysis of a number of sugars. Carl and Gerti Cori were well on their way to the Nobel Prize for their pioneering work on glycogen metabolism. 1950’s: The ABO blood group substances were well established as carbohydrates and a number of other medically relevant carbohydrates were identified.
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: By the late 1950’s the attention of many biochemists was diverted to the emergence of new developments in nucleic acid and protein research and later to the exciting areas of recombinant DNA technology and molecular genetics. By the 1980’s, however, it was becoming clear that in addition to their important roles in metabolism and structure, carbohydrates play important roles in the assembly of complex multicellular organs and organisms and function in such processes as cell recognition and regulation. In the late 1980’s, this recognition led to the coining of the term, “Glycobiology” . Glycobiology is the study of the structure, chemistry, biosynthesis and biological functions of glycans and their derivatives. It is a new field that brings together the traditional disciplines of
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Lecture 9 - Lecture 9 Background Reading Garrett and...

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