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midterm 1 study guide part 2 of 2

midterm 1 study guide part 2 of 2 - Study guide for Midterm...

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Study guide for Midterm 1 BIS103-002 SQ2010 PART 2 of 2 NOTE1: For #1-22, see PART 1 of 2. NOTE2: For structures of metabolites, there are two groups. The first group includes those that you should be able to DRAW yourself . They are: ATP, NAD+, NADH, NADP+, NADPH glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, 3-phosphoglycerate, 2-phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate. (=>for the three-carbon molecules, the "system" starting from glycerol may be useful) For metabolites in the second group, you are not required to remember the entire structures, but you should be able to RECOGNIZE the "key features". They are: Aldose (aldehyde in the top), ketose (keto-group), α -keto acid, β -hydroxy acid (counting α , β ,… from the carbonyl carbon of the “to be leaving” carboxylate) thiamine pyrophosphate (the "key feature" is the thiazolium ring - the five-membered ring including nitrogen and sulfur); lipoic acid (the “key feature” is the S-S bond in the five-membered ring of the oxidized form); CoA (the “key feature” is the SH group, BUT NOT S-S); FAD/FMN; citrate (the “key features” are three carboxylate groups and an alcohol in the middle); isocitrate (the key features are three carboxylate groups and an alcohol in the bottom); α -ketoglutarate (the “key feature” is that it is an α -keto acid with a total of five carbons) NOTE3: Make sure to see next three pages of this material for some important mechanisms. 23. The mechanism of β -hydroxy acid decarboxylation. Key points: NAD+ is necessary for the first oxidation, but no-cofactor is necessary for decarboxylation. An example of the substrate is isocitrate .
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