3AL-Lecture4 - Boiling Points! Impurities and Boiling...

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Boiling Points
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Impurities and Boiling Points C Gas Solid Liquid P atm T D E Temperature Pressure mp,fp(P atm ) bp,cp(P depressed mp,fp(P atm ) Soluble, Non-Volatile Impurity Raoult’s Law: P A = X A A P A = vapor pressure of compound A in a solution of A and a soluble impurity X A = mole fraction of A in the solution A = vapor pressure of pure A Reduced vapor pressure curve due to the presence of a soluble impurity raised bp,cp(P atm )
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Insoluble, Non-Volatile Impurity No Change in the Boiling Point!
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Temperature Readout Boiling Chip Liquid Refux line: Vapor Liquid Digital Thermometer Probe Measuring a Boiling Point Heat Source Note: the probe tip is in the reflux line not the liquid!
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Impurities and Boiling Points. Part II Soluble, Volatile Insoluble, Volatile Cannot measure the boiling point of only one component under these conditions!
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Boiling Points are Physical Constants Narrowing the Field ! Boiling Point ! Visual Cues ! Solubility " color of the liquid " clarity " viscosity " polar solvents " non-polar solvents " aqueous acidic solution " aqueous basic solution ! Density " quantitative (g/mL) " relative (versus water)
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This note was uploaded on 06/28/2010 for the course CHEM Chemistry taught by Professor Nitche during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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3AL-Lecture4 - Boiling Points! Impurities and Boiling...

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