3AL-Lecture8 - Structure Determination ! X-Ray...

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Unformatted text preview: Structure Determination ! X-Ray Crystallography ! NMR Spectroscopy ! Mass Spectrometry Spectroscopy Absorption of Electromagnetic Radiation: Something Changes from a Lower Energy State to a Higher Energy State " E = h ! ! E: change in energy h : Plank's constant " : frequency of electromagnetic radiation Energy ( " E = h ! ) > 300 (kcal) 300 40 40 2 2 0.1 10-4 X-rays Electronic transitions of core electrons in atoms UV Vis. Electronic transitions of valence electrons Near IR Far IR Micro- waves Vibrational transitions Rotational transitions Radio- waves " 10 nm 50 400 800 20 # m 1mm 100mm ! = c " = wavelength Electromagnetic Spectrum 10-6 1m Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( NMR ) Spectroscopy N uclear (spins) R esonating (when electromagnetic radiation is applied) in a M agnetic Field 1 H 13 C 19 F 31 P " E = h ! B o Nuclear Spin " Nuclei with a spin equal to zero are NMR inactive " Nuclei with a spin not equal to zero are NMR active " 1 H, 13 C, 15 N, 19 F, 31 P all have a spin equal to 1/2 Spinning Nuclei Spinning Nuclei Create a Small Magnetic Field + + + + + + + Spin(...
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This note was uploaded on 06/28/2010 for the course CHEM Chemistry taught by Professor Nitche during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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3AL-Lecture8 - Structure Determination ! X-Ray...

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