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REMINDERS/SUGGESTIONS FOR STUDYING FOR THE SECOND MID- TERM: When reconstructing an argument, please remember to follow the guidelines . As always, remember to number the lines, to underline the last premise, and to make sure that you get the order of the premises correctly, and so on. Your premises should conform to the forms that you learnt in class, and it is possible to mix different forms in one argument. So, you might have conditionals of the form ‘If P, then Q’, and specific propositions P and Q, etc. You might also get categorical propositions such as ‘All A are B’, ‘Some A are not B’, etc., as well as singular statements such as ‘x is an A’, etc. Stating generalisations as categorical propositions rather than conditionals is often not only a more natural way to speak, but also gives you a stronger argument. When you add a generalisation as an implicit premise, it must be true. Once you are certain that it is true, try to make it as wide as possible (e.g., ‘most’ rather than ‘some’ or ‘all’ rather than ‘most’ as your quantifiers) all the while preserving its truth as much as possible. If that is not possible, then of course it’s better to have a true narrow generalisation rather than a false wide one. You should do this in order to make sure that your argument is well-formed. Always make certain that the sentences in your argument are not incomplete: that is, don’t forget to make generalisations by using quantifiers (‘some’, ‘most’, ‘all’, ‘no’). E.g., don’t write ‘Cats like to chase mice’ but put whichever quantifier
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