Lecture 2 - Chem 172 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Lecture 2...

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1 Chem 172 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Lecture 2 Simple Bonding Theory: 1. Lewis Electron Dot Diagrams 2. Valence Shell Electron Repulsion Theory Class Anouncement Waiting list: Honor section: Atomic Size ¾ Atomic size increases down a group (increase the # of electronic shells), ¾ Atomic size decrease from left to right (increase the effective nuclear charge within the same number of shells) ¾ Lanthanide contraction I, ionization potential (energy): minimum energy required to remove an electron from a gas phase atom. Ea, electron affinity: the change of energy when a gaseous atom gain one electron. χ (chi), electron negativity (EN): The power of an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is a part of a compound I, ionization potential: ¾ I decreases down the group, and increases from left to right ¾ Special cases: Be, N, Mg, P, complete or half-filled shell, more stable and more difficult to remove electron, higher I. ¾ Roughly opposite trend to atomic radius. E a : Electron Affinity ¾ Ea follows same trend at I: decreases down the group, and increases from left to right, Ea(F) lower than Ea(Cl): smaller diameter, strong e-e repulsion ¾ Special cases: Be, N, Mg, P, complete or half-filled shell, more stable, de- stabilize when adding (E a ) or removing (I) extra electrons. kJ/mol
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2 H 2.20 <> Li 0.98 Be 1.57 <> B 2.04 C 2.55 N 3.04 O 3.44 F 3.98 Na 0.93 Mg 1.31 <> Al 1.61 Si 1.90 P 2.19 S 2.58 Cl 3.16 K 0.82 Ca 1.00 Sc 1.36 Ti 1.54 V 1.63 Cr 1.66 Mn 1.55 Fe 1.83 Co 1.88 Ni 1.91 Cu 2.00 Zn 1.65 Ga 1.81 Ge 2.01 As 2.18 Se 2.55 Br 2.96 Rb 0.82 Sr 0.95 Y 1.22 Zr 1.33 Nb 1.60 Mo 2.16 Te 1.90 Ru 2.20 Rh 2.28 Pd 2.20 Ag 1.93 Cd 1.69 In 1.78 Sn 1.96 Sb 2.05 Te 2.10 I 2.66 Cs 0.79 Ba 0.89 La 1.10 Hf 1.30 Ta 1.50 W 2.36 Re 1.90 Os 2.20 Ir 2.20 Pt 2.28 Au 2.54 Hg 2.00 Tl 2.04 Pb 2.33 Bi 2.02 Po 2.00 At 2.20 ¾ Roughly, electron negativity also follows similar trend to I and Ea: Increase from left right, decrease from top to bottom. ¾
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Lecture 2 - Chem 172 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Lecture 2...

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