L09S10_ManyEAtomsIonizSpin+02-08-10

L09S10_ManyEAtomsIonizSpin+02-08-10 - CHEM 1A L09:

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Unformatted text preview: CHEM 1A L09: "ManyEAtomsIonizSpin" H -Atom, One-Electron Ions Onen=1 l = 0 (s) (s ml = 0 n=2 l = 0 (s) (s ml = 0 Radial Node n=2 ml = -1, +1 l = 1 (p) (p ml = 0 z - 2px Angular Node z 2py + z y x + 2pz z 1s + z 2s + - + y x - y y x y L9-5 x x n = 3 l = 0, 1, 2 © A.Pines,M.Kubinec UCB 3s, 3p, 3d Orbitals © A.Pines,M.Kubinec UCB © 2004 M.Kubinec L09-1 L9-6 Ionization Energies, Shielding Summary ∞ Many-e-system One-e Many- - system One- ∞ 3 2 1 H (kJ/mol) 328 1312 2372 5248 IE He+(1s He (1s12) 1) He ((1s 2p 1s ∞ ∞ ∞ 6 3 6 4 4 2 3 3 2 2 1 1 IE= IE= Z2 eff n2 R∞ © 2004 M.Kubinec 1 1 L10-9 Multi-Electron Atoms, Ions Multiℓ=0 ℓ=1 ℓ=2 Shielding 4s 3s 2s 1s © 2004 M.Kubinec 4p 3p 2p 3d - + 2p 2s E(3d) > E(4s) 3d) 4s) E(2p) > E(2s) 2p) 2s) 1s L10-10 © 2004 M.Kubinec L09-2 Energy of Transitions - Z2 En= n2 R∞ R∞ = 2.18 x 10-18J NAR∞ = 1312 kJmol-1 ΔE= -Z2R∞ 1 nf2 1 ni2 ni ΔE = h nf L09-3 © 2004 M.Kubinec © 2004 M. Kubinec, A.Pines 1 CHEM 1A L09: "ManyEAtomsIonizSpin" Astrochemistry 121 Reported Interstellar and Circumstellar Molecules How sweet it is © 2004 M.Kubinec L09-4 Energy Levels n ∞ 3 2 Ionized E 0 -R∞ -R∞ 4 9 ℓ=0 3s 2s ℓ=1 1 ℓ=2 -2 -1 0 1 2 mℓ=-1 0 3p 3p 3p 2p 2p 2p 3d (5 orbitals) 1 Ground -R∞ 1s Notation: n,ℓ,mℓ L09-5 © 2004 M.Kubinec MultiMulti-Electron Atoms, Ions ℓ=0 ℓ=1 ℓ=2 Shielding 4s 3s 2s 1s © 2004 M.Kubinec 4p 3p 2p 3d - + 2p 2s E(3d) > E(4s) 3d) 4s) E(2p) > E(2s) 2p) 2s) 1s L09-6 © 2004 M. Kubinec, A.Pines 2 CHEM 1A L09: "ManyEAtomsIonizSpin" Ionization Energies, Shielding ∞ 3 2 H (kJ/mol) 328 1312 IE He+ 1s He ((1s12) 1) He (1s 2p (1s ∞ ∞ ∞ 6 3 4 4 2 3 3 2 2 ∞ Many- - system Many-e-system OneOne-e 1 2372 5248 IE= IE= Z2 eff n2 R∞ 1 1 © 2004 M.Kubinec 1 1 L09-7 ChemQuiz© 9.1 Which atom or ion has the lowest ionization energy ? + ∞ 3 2 1 A) H (2p) © 2004 M.Kubinec B) He+ (3p) C) Li2+ (4p) L09-8 ChemQuiz© 9.2 Which atom has the lowest Ionization Energy? + ∞ 3 2 1 A) H (2p) © 2004 M.Kubinec B) He (1s3p) C) Li (1s24p) L09-10 © 2004 M. Kubinec, A.Pines 3 CHEM 1A L09: "ManyEAtomsIonizSpin" Electron Spin, Magnetism Spin Little Magnet N Quantized Spin Q.M. Classical Q.M. ms=-1/2 “Spin Down” ms=1/2 “Spin Up” Electron 4 Q.N.s © 2004 M.Kubinec n, ℓ , mℓ , ms L09-12 Pauli Exclusion Principle No two electrons can have have the same set of Quantum Numbers n, ℓ , mℓ , ms Hund’s Rule: Degenerate Orbitals © 2004 M.Kubinec Fermions vs. Fermions vs. Bosons Parallel Spins Lowest Energy L09-13 Lecture Complete © 2004 M.Kubinec L09-14 © 2004 M. Kubinec, A.Pines 4 ...
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