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Introduction (Ch1-5) - Specific Objectives Gain an...

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1 Course objective: To gain exposure to the diversity of animal life on the planet Two guiding principles throughout: 1. Form and function (bio-engineering, bio-physics) 2. New ways of solving problems (variations on a theme; evolution) dogs rule Specific Objectives Gain an understanding of: 1) principles of zoological classification from phylum to species 2) the major grades of structural organization and symmetry in the animal kingdom 3) the embryology and development of they body cavity (coelom) among phyla 4) the major lineages of animal evolution 5) the general characteristics that define each of the major phyla Guidelines to optimize your experience/ performance in class 1) Show up to lectures (PRS extra-credit open-book questions EVERY class). * beginning next Tuesday 2) Prepare summary charts comparing features among phyla. *****see Blackboard for examples***** 3) Prepare vocabulary flashcards or “random word lists” soon after each lecture. *****see “Study Tips” document on Blackboard***** 4) Form a study group. 5) STAY ON TOP OF THE MATERIAL! “WE MUST EXPLAIN BEHAVIOR IN A LIGHT BRIGHTER THAN OUR OWN (HUMAN) IMMEDIATE EXPERIENCE.” From Illumination in the Flatwood - by Joe Hutto, Naturalist
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2 Most of animal diversity is made up of arthropods …and vertebrates comprise only ~5% of the known diversity of life on the planet… …and mammals comprise at most only ~0.4 %! So another course goal is simply to instill a better appreciation of all the “other” animals out there. PARAZOA Porifera [sponges] Placozoa EUMETAZOA Radiata Cnidaria [sea anemones,etc.] Ctenophora [comb jellies] Bilateria Protostomia Lophotrochozoa Mesozoa [small parasitic worms ] Platyhelminthes [tape worms and flukes] Nemertea [ribbon worms ] Pogonophora [gutless worms ] Echiura [spoon worms ] Annelida [segmented worms ] Brachiopoda [lamp shells] Phoronida [lophophore worms ] Entoprocta [nodding heads] Bryozoa [moss animals] Mollusca [snails, clams, etc.] Chaetognatha [arrow worms ] Rotifera [wheel animals] Gastrotricha [unsegmented worms ] Acanthocephala [vertebrate gut parasitic worms ] Sipuncula [peanut worms ] Ecdysozoa Kinorhyncha [snout movers] Priapulida [phallus worms ] Loricifera [brush heads] Nematoda [round worms ] Nematomorpha [horsehair worms ] Onychophora [velvet worms ] Tardigradia [water bears] Pycnogonida [sea spiders] Uniramia [insects, centipedes +] Chelicerata [spiders, mites, etc.] Crustacea [crabs,barnacles,etc.] Deuterostomia Echinodermata [sea stars, etc.] Hemichordata [acorn worms ] Urochordata [sea squirts] Chordata [fish, frogs, birds, humans, etc.] UNDETERMINED AFFINITIES Gnathostomulida [interstitial worms ] Cycliophora [discovered in 1995] Current estimates suggest ~37 phyla of animals (nearly half of them worms ! ) Phylum Chordata (dogs rule!) (hookworms) Phylum Platyhelminthes (tapeworms) Phylum Arthropoda Chelicerata (ticks, mites) Insecta (fleas) (heartworms) Phylum Nematoda (round worms) Phylum Annelida (leeches) KINGDOM Protista (Protozoans: Giardia , Coccidia , etc.) While there is striking variation among the various phyla, fossil evidence indicates that the ground plans for most of
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