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2011 SLIDE SET X

2011 SLIDE SET X - UNIT III Evolution Population Genetics...

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The real reason the dinosaurs became extinct… UNIT III Evolution & Population Genetics
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EVOLUTION SLIDE SET IX I. The concept of evolution up to Darwin’s time A. Greek philosophy B. Judeo-Christian theology (e.g. Linnaeus) C. The Enlightenment (geological science) D. Lamarck E. State of knowledge at Darwin’s time II. Darwin and the theory of evolution by natural selection A. Voyage of the Beagle B. Formulation of the theory III. Evolutionary theory A. Essential elements IV. Lines of evidence for evolution A. Biogeography B. The fossil record C. Comparative anatomy D. Embryology E. Molecular biology F. Artificial selection
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V. The Modern Synthesis: Population Genetics A. Darwin’s dilemma 1. Genetic variation in natural populations 2. Genes and mutation 3. The Hardy-Weinberg rule B. Populations and gene pools 1. Definitions 2. Illustration of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium C. Conditions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium D. Significance of Hardy-Weinberg for the study of evolution E. How to recognize Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
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VI . Forces that disrupt HW equilibrium A. Effects of chance in small populations - genetic drift 1. Bottlenecks 2. Founder effects B. Mutation C. Migration and gene flow D. Non-random mating E. Natural selection 1. Example: the peppered moth
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“Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.” - T. Dobzhansky
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Evolution Species ________________________ and new species arise by the ___________________ of earlier species. “descent with modification” - Charles Darwin, 1859 On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
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Greek PhilosophERS e.g. Plato and Aristotle (350 bc) Plato and “______________” - God created all things - all things have a constan t, perfec t “essenc e” (an “ideal form”; an abstract entity) - variation is an imperfect reflection of the inner essence - no potential life was left unrealized (i.e., _______________________________________)
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Evolution, Monroe W. Strickberger Aristotle and the ScalA NaturAE (the “scale of nature”) - all living things are fixed in a _____________________ - no empty “links” or “rungs” Implication: - species don’t/can’t/shouldn’t change
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Natural theologians : Species: Homo sapiens (italicized) Genus: Homo Family: Hominidae Order: Primates Class: Mammalia Phylum: Chordata Kingdom: Animalia The study of ___________ to better understand ___________ e.g., Carolus Linnaeus (~1750) - sought to discover _________ in the diversity of life to better understand God’s plan - elements of essentialism: species created as _________ all at _______________ , ~ 6000 yrs ago (Biblical creation) - Linnaeus created the binomial classification system: each “type” of organism has a 2-part scientific name consisting of its ________ & __________ .
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Georges Cuvier & discoveries from Paleontology (= the study of ________ ) ex: strata in the Grand Canyon See, e.g., Fig. 22.3 Fossil organisms in close (MORE RECENT) layers are similar yet different Fossil organisms in far-apart layers are less similar many species in older(LOWER) layers don’t exist today But then came the Age of Enlightmentment:
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Catastrophism: - proponents (______) usually accepted a _____ creation to explain fossil record - believed in a relatively ___________ age for the earth - the fossil record reflects extinctions due to sporadic catastrophes (i.e., no evolution ) vs……….
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