2011 Slide Set VI

2011 Slide Set VI - Next up in UNIT II: Patterns of...

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Next up in UNIT II: Patterns of Inheritance How are genes and the traits for which they code passed along from parents to offspring? Father and son sisters brothers twins Family Mom and offspring
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SLIDE SET VI Outline I. Mendel - A New Theory of Inheritance A. Who was Mendel? B. What did Mendel know? C. Plant breeding II. Mendel's work A. Monohybrid cross B. Interpretation in modern terms C. Quantitative results D. The dihybrid cross E. Summary of Mendel's Rules III. Probability Theory and Patterns of Inheritance A. Definitions B. Rules for probability C. Application to the dihybrid cross
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SLIDE SET VI OUTLINE (cont’d.) IV. Extensions of (and exceptions to) Mendel’s rules A. Partial dominance 1. incomplete dominance 2. co-dominance B. More than 2 possible alleles at a locus 1. human ABO blood groups C. Pleiotropy D. Polygenic inheritance 1. epistasis 2. human skin color 3. human eye color
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The Homunculus vs. Pangenesis
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Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) - an Austrian monk Common pea plant ( Pisum sativum ) http://anthro.palomar.edu/mendel/mendel_1.htm Why was he smart to use pea plants to study inheritance?
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Fig. 14.2 How controlled plant breeding is accomplished.
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REASONS FOR MENDEL’S SUCCESS - studied several different plant characteristics (or “traits”) (Table 14.1) - studied “either-or” traits that each had __ distinct versions (“______”) (e.g. white flowers or purple flowers) - started simple: by studying one characteristic at a time 4. Made sure his starting plants were ______________ (i.e., when self-fertilized, ONLY the same parental trait showed up in offspring generation after generation) 1. Used an organism (pea plant) that: - can both __________________- fertilize - produces _____________________________ (= seeds) - has a relatively ____________________ generation time 2. Subjected data to quantitative analysis 3. Used an organized, systematic (i.e., “scientific”) approach:
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See Table 14.1 seven of Mendel’s plant traits
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Fig 14.3 Mendel’s series of crosses: a monohybrid cross F 1 = “first filial” generation (offspring) *___________ (where did the “white flower” info go?)
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Fig 14.3 Mendel’s series of crosses: a monohybrid cross 705 purple 224 white Mendel self- fertilized the F 1 plants to generate the F 2
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Mendel found the same pattern for all seven characteristics he studied: 1. Only one of two possible forms for a trait showed up in the first generation (F 1 ) when the parents were _________________ for 2 different forms of a trait. 2. The form of the trait not seen in the first generation re-appeared in the second generation (F 2 ), and always in a ____________ .
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Mendel’s explanation for his observed results: 1. Each characteristic (trait) is controlled by a separate “factor” (= a ____ ), and there are __ “variants” or “forms” (= ______ ) for each gene in each plant. His main clue: the F 1 generation results (i.e., when he crossed a true- breeding purple & a true-breeding white…no white flowers showed up) Thus, Mendel deduced the ______________of organisms before chromosomes and genes were even discovered!
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Fig 14.4 These have the _____ ______ & possibly different alleles per gene.
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P P P p ______________zygous = when the 2 _______ for a given gene are the ____ (“P” & “P”: both purple alleles) ____________zygous = when the 2 ______ for a given gene are __________ (“P” & “p”: one purple allele & one white allele)
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This note was uploaded on 06/29/2010 for the course BSC BSC2011 taught by Professor Spears during the Summer '10 term at FSU.

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2011 Slide Set VI - Next up in UNIT II: Patterns of...

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