2011 Slide Set III

2011 Slide Set III - SLIDE SET III OUTLINE Animal...

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I. Neurulation A. Introduction B. Example: neurulation 1. frog 2. chick 3. spinal column and spinal cord C. Amniote embryos 1. amniotes 2. extra-embryonic membranes a. birds, reptiles b. humans SLIDE SET III OUTLINE Animal Development (cont’d)
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II. Morphogenic mechanisms A. Cell movement/rearrangement 1. convergent extension 2. invagination, ingression, involution (e.g., gastrulatin) 3. changes in cell shape (e.g., neurulation) B. Cytoplasmic determinants (again!) 1. overview 2. axes of symmetry in amphibians (e.g., gray crescent, cortical rotation, cell potency) 3. bicoid gene in Drosophila C. Cell communication (again!) 1. Holtfreter’s work 2. 3. induction D. Pattern formation 1. 2. SLIDE SET III OUTLINE (cont’d.) Animal Development
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Organogenesis: continued cell movement and cell differentiatio n result in the development of organs and organ systems Example: _______________ and the development of the ___________________ in frogs DEVELOPMENT PATTERN: 1. fertilization, 2. cleavage, 3. Gastrulation 4. ___________
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FROG Fig. 47.12 (7 th : 47.14) 1. Neurulation of surface ______________ cells is induced by the underlying _________________ NOTOCHORD = a skeletal rod in chordates formed from ____________ _________________
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Fig. 47.12 (7 th : 47.14) 2. ______________________ forms i.e., a thickening of ECTODERM caused by changes in ______________
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3. NEURAL _______________ and NEURAL ________________ form -changes in cell ___________ cause uplifting of cells Neural groove Fig. 47.12 (7 th : 47.14)
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4. NEURAL _________ forms once neural folds meet - a change in cell ________ pinches off neural tube from underlying & overlying cells -eventually becomes the _________ __________________ Neural groove Fig. 47.12 (7 th : 47.14)
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3. Cells change shape ex: neural tube formation ______________ _________ helps elongate cells. ______________ ______________ causes cells to become wedge shaped. Neural tube forms Fig. 47.17 (7 th : 47.19)
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5. Paired _____________ of mesodermal tissue flank neural tube: Somites = paired blocks of _______________________ cells extending serially along neural tube - form ____________________ - mesoderm extensions split (body cavity) Neural groove Fig. 47.12 (7 th : 47.14)
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6. _____________________ ________ are EPIDERMAL cells above the neural tube - these ___________ to form other cell types: e.g., peripheral nerves, pigment cells, teeth, skull bones Neural groove Fig. 47.12 (7 th : 47.14)
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Neural groove (= ectoderm origin) START HERE (= spinal cord) SUMMARY: THE COMPONENTS OF NEURULATION
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th : 47.10, 47.13 and 47.15) Blastoderm (recall: no “blastula” as such) 3 germ layers establshed by gastrulation NEURULATION: Blastoderm edges pinch inward and form a 3-layered “tube”on top of the yolk, then neurulation proceeds above the notocord (plate, folds, tube, etc.) Early embryonic stages in a chick embryo
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micrographs of a chick embryo during neurulation. Neural fold
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This note was uploaded on 06/29/2010 for the course BSC BSC2011 taught by Professor Spears during the Summer '10 term at FSU.

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2011 Slide Set III - SLIDE SET III OUTLINE Animal...

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