2011 Slide Set II

2011 Slide Set II - What processes, besides cell...

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Fig. 1-9 Nuclei containing DNA Sperm cell Egg cell Fertilized egg with DNA from both parents Embryo’s cells with copies of inherited DNA Offspring with traits inherited from both parents ? ? ? What processes, besides cell signalling, cell communication, gene regulation & differential gene expression, control the steps in development?
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PROBLEM: Given the generality of the Central Dogma cell give rise to the diversity of cell types in a multicellular organism? Solution: differential gene expression (last time) Next: some final loose ends & then: “DEVELOPMENT”
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I. The Genetic Basis of Development A. Cellular processes guiding development 1. cell division 2. cell differentiation 3. morphogenesis B. How cells differentiate 1. genomic equivalence 2. evidence for genomic equivalence a. totipotency and cloning i. in plants ii. in animals b. stem cells i. embryonic ii. adult 3. molecular processes a. determination i. via cytoplasmic determinants (CDs) ii. via induction by cell signaling SLIDE SET II “loose ends”
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SLIDE SET II (cont’d.) Animal Development I. General Pattern II. Gametes III. Fertilization IV. Cleavage V. A. Introduction B. Example: gastrulation 1. sea urchin 2. frog 3. chick
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Proper embryonic development requires that the correct _____ are expressed at the correct _____ and in the correct ________ . Fig. 18.18; 7th: 21.13
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A. Cellular processes guiding embryonic development For a single, fertilized egg cell (= _________ ) to develop into a multicellular embryo (later, adult) requires: zygote multicellular embryo A. cell _______ (mitosis) C. _______________ B. cell _____________ - to increase # of cells - to faithfully replicate the entire genome (all the DNA) in daughter cells - involves regulating the expression of genes to make tissue-specific proteins - cells become specialized via a sequence of molecular events called determination (e.g., skin cells, muscle cells, nerve cells) - setting up a body plan (e.g., anterior-posterior axis) - relies on cell signaling affecting gene regulation movements
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Fig. 1-9 Nuclei containing DNA Sperm cell Egg cell Fertilized egg with DNA from both parents Embryo’s cells with copies of inherited DNA Offspring with traits inherited from both parents ? cell division -more cell division, cell morphogenesis (later today)
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B. Processes guiding (embryonic) cell differentiation 1. ___________________ : all the different cell types in an organism have identical genomes …but they express different genes 2. Evidence for genomic equivalence: a. __________ : the potential of a cell to differentiate into ______ type of cell because no genes are irreversibly turned off
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a. i. evidence of totipotency in plants (e.g., carrot root cells) -the new “cloned” carrot plant is ________________ to “parent” -parent’s root cells were ________________ - ____________ : obtaining an adult __________ from a parental somatic (body) cell or non-reproductive cell Fig. 20.16 (7th: 21.5)
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a. ii. Evidence of totipotency in animals
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2011 Slide Set II - What processes, besides cell...

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