Urban Communities in the 21st Century - Hutson

Urban Communities in the 21st Century - Hutson - Urban...

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Unformatted text preview: Urban Communities in the 21st Century From Industrialization to Sustainability Urban Communities in the 21st Century MCP Malo Andr Hutson, Ph.D., From Industrialization to Sustainability University of California Berkeley Malo Andr Hutson, Ph.D., MCP University of California Berkeley Copyright 2010 by Malo Andr Hutson. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information retrieval system without the written permission of University Readers, Inc. First published in the United States of America in 2010 by Cognella, a division of University Readers, Inc. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Copyright 2010 by Malo Andr Hutson. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information retrieval system 14 13 12 11 10 12345 without the written permission of University Readers, Inc. Printed in the United States of America First published in the United States of America in 2010 by Cognella, a division of University Readers, Inc. ISBN: 978-1-609279-83-7 Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. 14 13 12 11 10 12345 Printed in the United States of America ISBN: 978-1-609279-83-7 Introduction Introduction Urban Communities Century Introduction inin 21stCentury Urban Communities 21st Malo Andr Hutson Malo Andr Hutson Urban Communities in 21st Century W W W Malo Andr Hutson hy study urban communities? Why care about changing demographics and the growth of metropolitan areas? ere are several reasons. First, the hy study world is communities? urbanized. According to the United Nations, urban becoming more Why care about changing demographics hy study urbanofof the populationareas? care in are several reasons. First, the and the growth metropolitan will ere urban areas (UN, 2008). By nearly three-fourths communities? Whyreside about changing demographics and the growth of metropolitan areas? the global to the United Nations, world is becoming more urbanized. According population) will live in 2030, an estimated 5 billion people (60% of ere are several reasons. First, the world is of the population will cities (World Resources more urbanized. statistics mean that many 2008). ese in urban to the United Nations, nearly three-fourths becoming Institute, 2010).resideAccording areas (UN,of us read-By nearly three-fourths oflive, or will live, in urban reside in urban areas (UN, United By 2008). ing this book the population will communities. population) will 2030, an estimated 5 billion people (60% of the globalSecond, here in the live in 2030, an estimatedgrowth of cities and surrounding suburban areas is significantly changing in States, the 5 billion people (60% of the global population) will live cities (World Resources Institute, 2010). ese statistics mean that many of us readcities (World Resources Institute, 2010). ese statistics mean that many of us readour the the United ing this book live, or will live, in urban communities. Second, here inin the and this book demographics. Demographic changes in turn drastically alterherepolitical United ing live, or will live,urban communities. So policies and programs tailored to in urban communities. Second, social landscape of our States, the growth of cities and surrounding suburban areas isis significantly changing signifi States, the growth of urban communities of yesterday may not areas today. cantly changing benefit the cities and surrounding suburban work ird, the growth our demographics. Demographic changes in turn drastically alter the political and our demographics. Demographicterms of space and population--challengesthe political and changes in turn drastically alter both local and of metropolitan areas--in social landscape of our urban communities.So policies and programs tailored social landscape of our urban communities. because diverse communities have varying toto regional political and governance systems So policies and programs tailored benefi urban communities of yesterday may not short- and long-term the growth benefit the needs. So growth in metropolitan areas maynot work today. urban communities of yesterday demands work today. ird, planning ird, the growth of metropolitan areas--in terms of space and population--challenges both local and of metropolitan areas--in terms of space and population--challenges both local and to address physical infrastructure and diverse regional and economic development regional political Finally, we are constantly learning about the environmental consequences regional political and governance systems because diverse communities have varying needs. and governance systems because diverse communities have varying needs. So growthwe live. us, as the metropolitan population grows and suburbanplanning growth in metropolitan areas demands short- and long-term sprawl needs. of how in metropolitan areas demands short- and long-term planning to address physical we will need to fiand diverse regional and economicgrowth while to address physical infrastructure nd innovative ways to accommodate this development increases, infrastructure and diverse regional and economic development needs. Finally, we environmentally sustainable communities. environmentalof city leaders, building are constantly learning about the e primary goal consequences needs. Finally, we are constantly learning about the environmental consequences of how we after all, should be tometropolitan population grows and suburban sprawl live. us, as the give people access to a healthy environment and adequate of how we live. us, as the metropolitan population grows and suburban sprawl increases, we will need to findsocial opportunities. to accommodate this growth while economic, political nd innovative ways increases, we will need to fiand innovative ways to accommodate this growth while building environmentally sustainable communities. e primary goal of city leaders, building environmentally sustainable communities. e primary goal of city leaders, after all, should be to give people access to a healthy environment and adequate after all, should DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS MATTERhealthy environment and adequate WHY be to give people access to a economic, political and social opportunities. economic, political and social opportunities. How are our demographics changing within urban communities within the United States? And why does this matter? Over the last 50 years, metropolitan areas have WHY DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS MATTER become increasingly ethnically and racially WHY DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS MATTER diverse as immigration patterns has shifted How are our demographics changingto Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean (Judd and from primarily Western Europe within urban communities within the United How are our demographics changing within urban communities within the United States? And why does this matter? Over the last 50 years, metropolitan areas have becomeAnd why does this matter? racially diverse50 immigration patterns has shifted States? increasingly ethnically and Over the last as years, metropolitan areas have from primarily Western Europe to racially diverse as immigration Caribbean (Judd and become increasingly ethnically and Asia, Latin America and the patterns has shifted from primarily Western Europe to Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean (Judd and Introduction: Urban Communities in 21st Century 1 Introduction: Urban Communities in 21st Century Introduction: Urban Communities in 21st Century 1 1 Swanstrom, 2008). Today, central cities are no longer the bastion of diversity; now many Swanstrom, 2008). Today, central cities are no longer the bastion of diversity; nowmany suburban communities consist of racial and ethnic minorities, resulting in what many suburban communities consist of racial and ethnic minorities, resulting in what many have coined "multiethnic suburbs" (Judd and Swanstrom, 2008). In metropolitan areas have coined "multiethnic suburbs" (Judd and Swanstrom, 2008). In metropolitan areas such as Miami, New York, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C., such as immigrant populations are shaping the political, social,and Washington, D.C., diverse Miami, New York, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and cultural landscape. diverse immigrant populations are shaping the political, social, for new ideas, cultures, For example, population growth and increased diversity allow and cultural landscape. For example, population growth and influence each other. Demographic shiftscultures, arts and innovation to comingle and increased diversity allow for new ideas, are also arts and innovation to comingle and influence each other.cultural, religious and busichanging the voting age population and diversifying the Demographic shifts are also changing the voting age in our metropolitan communities.cultural, religious and business institutions present population and diversifying the us, current demographic ness institutions present in our metropolitan communities. at the local demographic trends will shape the political, social and economic system us, current and regional trendsand these trendspolitical, social and and shape the Unitedthe local a whole. level, will shape the will in turn impact economic system at States as and regional level, and these trends will in turn impact and shape the United States as a whole. MODERN CHALLENGES FACING URBAN GOVERNANCE AND MODERN CHALLENGES FACING URBAN GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT As metropolitan areas increase in population and continue to spread out spatially, As metropolitan areas increase cities in moderately sized metropolitan areas compete this presents challenges. Many in population and continue to spread out spatially, this presents challenges.revenue cities in moderately sized metropolitan areas compete with each other for tax Many from businesses and affluent residents with disposable with each other for tax revenue from businesses and affluent residents with disposable income. Often, transit systems, social services and urban development are not well income. Often, transit systems, social services and urban development are not well integrated from one city or county to the next. is lack of regional coordination and integrated from one city or county to the next. is lack of regional coordination and collaboration results in uneven development. Uneven development in turn can cause collaboration results in uneven development. Uneven development in turn can cause large disparities in levels of poverty, wealth, quality of education and housing, economic large disparities in levels of poverty, wealth, quality of education and housing, economic opportunities and health. Accordingly, a greater understanding of urban communities opportunities and health. Accordingly, a greater understanding of urban communities and development patterns can help urban planners, political scientists, economists, and development patterns can help urban planners, political scientists, economists, public health practitioners and others develop comprehensive solutions and approaches public health practitioners and others develop comprehensive solutions and approaches to address the complex challenges that arise with increased urbanization. to address the complex challenges that arise with increased urbanization. EFFORTS TO BUILD EQUITABLE, SUSTAINABLE AND HEALTHY EFFORTS TO BUILD EQUITABLE, SUSTAINABLE AND HEALTHY COMMUNITIES COMMUNITIES Finally, the growth of metropolitan areas presents environmental challenges to urban Finally, the growth of metropolitan areas presents environmental challenges to urban communities across the United States. Many urban communities struggle to find ways communities across the United States. Many urban communities struggle to find ways to balance growth, economic development and environmental concerns. For example to balance growth, economic development and environmental concerns. For example in California, metropolitan areas are trying to curb greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by in California, metropolitan areas are trying to curb greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by relying on local Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) to develop "Sustainable relying on local Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) to develop "Sustainable Communities Strategies" to achieve quantifiable targets through development and betCommunities Strategies" to achieve quantifiable targets through development and better coordination (Altmaier et al., 2009). Many cities are also creating, or have created, ter coordination (Altmaier et al., 2009). Many cities are also creating, or have created, sustainability plans that lay out their development and economic strategies that balance sustainability plans that lay out their development and economic strategies that balance environment protections with growth and prosperity. environment protections with growth and prosperity. e shift towards green economic development has created a "green economy," cene shift towards green economic development has created a "green economy," centered on the production of environmentally friendly goods and services. Nationwide, tered on the production of environmentally friendly goods and services. Nationwide, 2 2 Urban Communities in the 21st Century Urban Communities in the 21st Century city leaders are creating job opportunities in sectors such as clean energy, renewable energy and alternative fuels (e.g. solar, wind, geothermal, biofuels), green building and city leaders are creating job opportunities in sectors and clean energy, renewable energy efficiency technology, energy efficient infrastructuresuch astransportation, and energy and alternative fuels (e.g. solar, wind, 2010). recycling and waste-to-energy (Chapple and Hutson,geothermal, biofuels), green building and is strategy may benefit energy efficiency opportunities in cityin metropolitan communities as citiesefficient infrastructure more sustainable. and leaders are creating jobtechnology, energysectorsdesigned to be and transportation, such as clean energy, renewable residents are recycling and waste-to-energy (Chapple and Hutson, 2010). is strategy may energy and alternative fuels (e.g. solar, wind, geothermal, biofuels), green building and benefit Residents efficiencywithin urban communitiesasare also designed to be more sustainable. living technology, energy efficient infrastructure coming together to create energy residents in metropolitan communities cities are and transportation, and healthier environments byliving within urban Hutson, 2010). also coming togethert usecreate Residents focusing on and access to are food through the recycling and waste-to-energy (Chapple theircommunitiesfresh is strategy may benefi to of urban residents in metropolitan communities as cities are designed toto fresh food through the use of gardens,healthier environments by focusingmarkets, accessthe attraction and retention the establishment of farmer's on their and be more sustainable. urban gardens, the establishment of farmer's markets, and the attraction and Residents living within urban communities are also increasingly, institutions and of supermarkets that sell organic and fresh food. And coming together to create retention of healthier environments by that sell organic environmental justice andthe use of organizations are supermarkets issues related toand fresh food. And increasingly, institutions and addressing focusing on their access to fresh food through health inequiorganizations are addressing issues related toand the attraction and retention inequienvironmental justice and health urban gardens, the establishment farmer's ties. Consequently,Consequently, the of within markets,communities is growing to better ties. the momentumand fresh urban urban communities is growing to better momentum within increasingly, institutions and of supermarkets that sell organic food. And understand how the addressing issues relatedandenvironmentalinterrelated, and and develop built environment to health health are and health to to understand how the built environment and are justice interrelated,inequi- develop organizations are strategies that make that make urban communities is and healthy places strategies and solutionsand solutions urban communities safe and healthy places to live. ties. Consequently, the momentum within urban communities safegrowing to better to live. THE URBAN COMMUNITY AND THE INDIVIDUAL understand how the built environment and health are interrelated, and to develop strategies THEsolutions that make urban AND THE INDIVIDUAL and URBAN COMMUNITY communities safe and healthy places to live. In the THE URBANcan determine your access toINDIVIDUAL matters--because healthcare and chapters ahead, you will see that whereneighborhoods, quality housing, where you live COMMUNITY AND THE safe you live live can determine your and economic opportunities. And there are many external factors that deeducation, access to see neighborhoods, matters--because healthcare In the chapters ahead, you will safethat where you live quality housing,where you and education, andtermine whether where you liveAnd there are many externalto these and deeconomic access to safe neighborhoods, more housing, healthcare quality live can determine youropportunities. provides youqualityor less access factors that of life indicators. External provides And there or less external these quality termine whether where you live social, political and economic forces can factors policies, programs education, and economic opportunities. you moreare manyaccess to shape that de- of life and the physical environment of communities. access to these qualitywill show, these our readings of termine whether where political live provides you more or less But asshape policies, programs indicators. External social, youare not andonly factors that shape an urban community,life a person's economic forces can external variables the or indicators. External social, political forces our shape policies, programs and the physical environment ofthat and economicBut ascan have the autonomy to shape their quality of life within communities. Individuals readings will show, these community. and the physical environment of communities. But as our readings will show, these external variables are not the only factors that shapevoting, community organizing, person's communities through civic participation, an urban community, or a mobilizing external variables are not the only factors that shape an urban community, or a person's and protests, community. create positive change. quality of life within that all of which canIndividualshave the autonomy to shapeshape their quality of life within that community. Individuals have the autonomy to their communities through civic participation, voting,community organizing, mobilizing communities through civic participation, voting, community organizing, mobilizing and protests, all of which can create positive change. and protests, all of which can create positive change. REFERENCES Altmaier, Monica et al. 2009. "Make it Work: Implementing Senate Bill 375." Policy Brief. Center for Sustainable California. Institute of Urban and Regional Development. U.C. Berkeley. Berkeley, CA. REFERENCES REFERENCESChapple, Karen and Malo Andre Hutson. 2010. Innovating the Green Economy in California Regions. Altmaier, Monica et al. 2009. "Make it Work: Implementing Senate Bill 375." Policy Brief. Center for Administration report. Center for Community Innovation. Altmaier, Monica et U.S. Economic Development and Regional Development. U.C. Berkeley. Berkeley, CA. UniverSustainable al. 2009. "Make it Work: Implementing Senate Bill 375." Policy Brief. Center for California. Institute of Urban sity of California at Berkeley. Berkeley, CA. Sustainable California. Institute of Urban andInnovating the Green Economy in California Regions. CA. Chapple, Karen and Malo Andre Hutson. 2010. Regional Development. U.C. Berkeley. Berkeley, Judd, Dennis and Todd Swanstrom. 2008. City Politics: e Political Economy of Urban America. Sixth U.S. Economic Development Administration report. Chapple, Karen and edition. Pearson Longman. New York, NY.Center for Community Innovation. UniverMalo Andre Hutson. 2010. Innovating the Green Economy in California Regions. sity of California at Berkeley. Berkeley, CA. report. of Worldfor Community report. http://www.unfpa. U.S. Economic Development Administration "State Center Population, 2007" Innovation. UniverUnited Nations Population Fund. 2007. Judd, Dennis and Todd Swanstrom. 2008. City Politics: e Political Economy of Urban America. Sixth sity of California org/swp/2007/english/introduction.html at Berkeley. Berkeley, CA. edition. World Resources Institute. 2010. http://archive.wri.org/page.cfm?id=1014&page=content Pearson Longman. New York, NY. Judd, Dennis and Todd Swanstrom. 2008. City Politics: e Political Economy of Urban America. Sixth United Nations Population Fund. 2007. "State of World Population, 2007" report. http://www.unfpa. edition. Pearson Longman. New York, NY. org/swp/2007/english/introduction.html United World Resources Institute. 2010. http://archive.wri.org/page.cfm?id=1014&page=contenthttp://www.unfpa. Nations Population Fund. 2007. "State of World Population, 2007" report. In the chapters ahead, you will see that where you live matters--because where you org/swp/2007/english/introduction.html Introduction: Urban Communities in 21st World Resources Institute. 2010. http://archive.wri.org/page.cfm?id=1014&page=content Century Introduction: Urban Communities in 21st Century 3 3 3 Introduction: Urban Communities in 21st Century ...
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